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Industrialization: Japan and Russia
October 14, 2007
Dr. Mark Crane
October 15th, 2007
Industrialization: Japan and Russia
As Western Europe began to industrialize, booming with innovation and new technology, the likes of which the eastern peoples of Asia have never seen, it became quite evident that they would either conform in this western practice of industrialization willingly, or become consumed by it. This apprehension gave a rebirth to two nations who would soon find themselves as major players on the global stage; Russia and Japan. Yet how these countries would industrialize, however, would take very different paths and diverse methods. Japan is a country of small land mass and for that reason is obviously more united and closely knit. Russia, however, is massive in size which would indubitably withhold many different types of peoples, dialects, and so fourth. Essentially, Japan would industrialize independently through a militaristic view and the Russians through a type of social revolution with the help of Westerners.
In a Russian point of view, they saw (the nobles) western industrialization as a threat to their hold over the country. On the other hand, Peter the Great pushed for Russia to become more European by adopting their language (most notably was French), clothing, administrative and military methods. Moreover, Peter the Great would also have the Russian royal family unite with European royal families through marriage and inconsequence, expand Russian territory. Peter the Greats fascination with Europe happened in his early years as Tsar, when he wished to wage war with the Ottoman Empire and wished to be supported by European monarchs. His _grand embassy_ was unable to find any support from European nations, however during his travels Peter learned much from the Dutch, Germans, French and English. Evidently this contributed in a large way to Peter's ambition to industrialize and Westernize Russia.
Nevertheless, this was only skin deep as it was only members of the nobility who experienced this Westernization and not those of the peasant population.
After Peter's death, Catherine the Great continued with his policy of Westernization, known as Russian Enlightenment. This was the dawn of Russia's first university, library, theatre, public museum and press. Over the next few years, Russia was involved in the Crimean war� pitting her against many great powers of Europe and was a major loss, leaving the empire with much discontent. As Alexander II came into power in 1855 there was restlessness within the empire. Rather than facing a revolution, Tsar Alexander II decided to emancipate the serfs himself in 1861�. This resulted in the freedom for two hundred million people. Inevitably, there were still issues as the serfs were still a poor and illiterate people, and even paying taxes to their old masters. Thus, the Social Democratic Party wad formed with the aim of overthrowing the Tsar through revolution by the working class to put an end to capitalism and abolish class exploitation, as per Karl Marx.� The party split into two factions, the Bolsheviks led by Lenin and the Mensheviks. Despite their differences, both factions were able to come up with a party platform in 1903 which included equal rights for all citizens regardless of race, religion or nationality, as well as freedom of religion.� At the end of it all during the revolution in 1905, the _Duma_ was instituted in favour of the liberals. And at this same time Russia was trying to expand which made the Japanese worry, and war broke out soon after in the same year, with the latter being victorious.� This crushing and demoralizing defeat led to many strikes and protests within Russia bringing freedom to peasants yet workers rights still being introverted which would eventually give rise to a communist revolution in the near...
Bibliography: Michael Adas, Peter N. Stearns, Stuart B. Schwartz, _Turbulent Passage._ New York: Pearson Education Inc, 2006.
Overfield, James H. _Sources of Twentieth Century Global History._ Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2002.
� Michael Adas, Peter N. Stearns, Stuart B. Schwartz, Turbulent Passage (New York: Pearson Education Inc, 2006), 36.
� James H. Overfield, Sources of Twentieth Century Global History (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2002), 43.
� Ibid. 44
� James H. Overfield, Sources of Twentieth Century Global History (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2002), 46.
� Michael Adas, Peter N. Stearns, Stuart B. Schwartz, Turbulent Passage (New York: Pearson Education Inc, 2006), 40-41.
� James H. Overfield, Sources of Twentieth Century Global History (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2002), 27.
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