Industrial Revolution in England
Industrial revolution occurred in England between 1750 and 1850. This revolution was about changing the old production processes to new for the purpose of making more profit. There were major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining and technology which had a significant effect on the economy and culture of England. England was the starting point of the revolution and after England it spread to Europe, North America and finally the entire world. Basically, it was resulted in industry and machine manufacturing, instead of the old system which was agrarian and handicraft economy. Industrial revolution influenced every aspect of daily life. This revolution led drastic changes. Technological, socioeconomic and cultural features are the main features that changed and developed in the Industrial Revolution. Firstly in the technological field, people started to use new basic materials such as iron and steel and new energy sources such as electricity, steam engine, etc. were introduced. Also, new machines invented, for example spinning jenny. Human energy expenditure becomes smaller as a result of invention of new machines. Lastly, factory system occurred and a new organization way emerged with that. This change led division of labour to occur. Industrial revolution was a very very important social event, it changed and improved the world and there are some important terms, peoples and matters which were the main building blocks such as coal, spinning jenny and steam engine. Firstly, coal. Coal and industrial revolution were connected to each other. Before the revolution people used coal but what they use was very close to surface and they didn’t get benefit from it. Before the revolution there were 2 types of mines; drift mines and bell pits. There were small scale of this and only homes and local industries used these types of coals. But after the revolution demand on coal increased a lot because coal was the energy source...
Western Civilization, A brief history, 3rd edition,Perry, 344-362
C. Bekar and R. Lipsey, “Science, Institutions and the Industrial Revolution”, Department of Economics Discussion Papers, 2002, 1, 5, 7-8, 13-24.
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