Since independence of Bangladesh, no major development took place in the history of labour legislation till the enactment of the Bangladesh Labour Act, 2006. The Bangladesh Labour Act, 2006 is a major and comprehensive enactment regarding industrial relation system--partly as a response to demand of stakeholders for improving regulatory framework on trade union and partly by demand for codification of existing labour laws in order to avoid overlapping and inconsistencies. It brought some significant changes in industrial relation system. However, the Act has not been able to bring the desired changed due to its in-built weaknesses, suspension of many labour rights under state of emergency and lack of institutional capacity to implement the laws.
Definition of Industrial Disputes:-
Industrial disputes are conflicts, disorder or unrest arising between workers and employers on any ground. Such disputes finally result in strikes, lockouts and mass refusal of employees to work in the organization until the dispute is resolved. So it can be concluded that Industrial Disputes harm both parties employees and employers and are always against the interest of both employees and the employers. Bangladesh Labour Act – 2006
‘industrial dispute’ means any dispute or difference between employers and employers or between employers and workers or between workers and workers which is connected with the employment or non-employment or the terms of employment or the conditions of work of any person; Cause of Industrial Disputes :-
The new industrial set-up has given birth to the capitalistic economy which divided the industrial society into two groups of labour and capitalists. The interests of these two groups are not common which created industrial disputes.
The causes of industrial disputes can be broadly classified into two categories: economic and non-economic causes. The economic causes will include issues relating to compensation like wages, bonus, allowances, and conditions for work, working hours, leave and holidays without pay, unjust layoffs and retrenchments. The non economic factors will include victimization of workers, ill treatment by staff members, sympathetic strikes, political factors, indiscipline etc.
Economic causes :
The most common causes of industrial disputes are economic causes. These are follows: Demand for higher Wages: Rise in the cost of living forces the workers to demand more wages to meet the rising cost of living index and to increase their standards of living. This brings them into conflict with their employers who are never willing to pay more wages to workers.
Demand for Allowances and Bonus: Increase in cost of living was the main cause of the demand of certain allowance allowances such as dearness allowance, house allowance, medical allowance, night shift allowance, conveyance allowance etc; by the workers to equate their wages with the rise of prices. Bonus also plays an important role as a cause of industrial dispute. Both the amount and the method of bonus payment have led to a number of disputes.
High Industrial Profits: In the changing world, concept of labour has changed considerably. At the present, employers consider themselves as a partner of the industry and demand their share in the profits. Non- Economic Causes:
Working Conditions and Working Hours: The working conditions in Bangladesh industries are not hygienic. There is not ample provision of water, heating, lighting, safety etc. On the other hand, working hours are also greater. The demand of palatable working conditions and shorter hours of work led to labour disputes. Modernization and Automation of Plant and Machinery: The attempt at modernization and introduction of automatic machinery to replace labour has been the major cause of disputes of Bangladesh. Workers go on strike, off and on, to resist such rationalization.
Personnel Causes: Sometime industrial disputes arise because of...
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