Background of Study
1.1 Problem Statement
Some would say that industrial action is a pest, eating away at the crux of Pakistan's industrial and social development. In many ways, this is true. Take for example, the doctors calling for strike in 2011 which led to multiple avoidable deaths. But it is also essential at times as it plays a vital role in bringing light to major issues that might be plaguing society, and sometimes it is used as a tool to protect one’s rights. In the 2011 incident, the purpose of the doctors’ strike was to demand their rights.
Now that we’ve established that industrial action is albeit a nuisance, it is an inevitable element in any society or industry; we have to understand why it is a necessity and come up with efficient ways to manage it, if not avoid it.
1.2 Research Questions
For the purpose of this study, the following research questions guide the work. They include: What is industrial action?
What are the causes of industrial action?
What are the effects of industrial action?
1.3 Significance of the study
The study has both theoretical and practical significance. Theoretically, this study will be useful to students in advancing their knowledge on the meaning, causes, effects, possible ways of avoidance and managing industrial action in Pakistan in an efficient way.
1.4 Hypothesis of the study
For the purpose of this study, the work will be guided by the following hypotheses: There is a significant link between a manager’s relationship and attitude towards his/her subordinates and industrial action There is a significant link between the human nature (Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs) and industrial action
2.1 The meaning of Industrial Action
Usually, when we think of industrial action we immediately think of strike action. However, there are many other types of industrial action that are perhaps used more often than strike action. Industrial action refers to action in which employees work in a way unlike the customary approach. It includes restrictions, limitations, or bans upon work. Industrial action happens when trade union members are in a disagreement with their employers that cannot be solved via debate and negotiations. Industrial action includes strikes, labor and work bans and lock-outs. Industrial action is usually taken by employers or employees to resolve a workplace conflict about working conditions. For example, employers or employees may decide to take industrial action during the negotiation course of a new venture contract. It is always better to try to settle workplace disputes without using industrial action. A trade union can only call for industrial action if a majority of its members involved support it in an appropriately organized postal vote - called a ‘ballot’. Before organizing a ballot, a union must decide which members affected by a conflict it wants to ask to take industrial action. It must tell all associates allowed to vote and the employer what the ballot results were. A trade union calls industrial action by telling members and the employer when and how this action will be taken. This should be done by a trade union official or committee that has the legal right to do so. Your voting paper must have said who this is. An employer or employee can’t just decide to take industrial action without there being penalties. There are different types of industrial action (protected, unprotected and unlawful) and processes that need to be followed to make sure the people taking the action are protected from legal action. Industrial action is only protected if it’s for a proposed enterprise agreement and the existing agreement or workplace determination is past its nominal expiry date. Industrial action includes when:
employees don’t come to work
employees fall short, or refuse to carry out any work at all employees interrupt or put a ban or maximum value on the...
Bibliography: Maslow, A. H. (1943). A Theory of Human Motivation. Psychological Review , 370-371.
Distribution of Workload:
Adina Bano: General idea and concept, 1.1-2.1, Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, Interview, compilation
Khujista Zehra: Human Relations Theory
Muhammad Sufian: Role of employee, Role of employer, Conclusion.
Shahrukh Idrees Naviwala: 2.2, 2.3
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