Individualism Collectivism

Powerful Essays
The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at www.emeraldinsight.com/0140-9174.htm

Individualism, collectivism, selected personality traits, and psychological contract in employment
A comparative study
Jun Zhao
College of Business and Public Administration, Governors State University, University Park, Illinois, USA, and

Psychological contract

289

Lijun Chen
College of Public Administration, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China
Abstract
Purpose – This study seeks to examine the relationship between individual’s cultural values of individualism, collectivism, selected personality traits and the psychological contracts they tend to form. Design/methodology/approach – Surveys were used to collect data from China and US sample sets. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to explore the impact of selected cultural values and personality traits on individuals’ tendency to form transactional contract or relational contract. Findings – Personality characteristics of equity sensitivity and external locus of control were found to be positively related to transactional contract type for both samples, and conscientiousness was found to be positively related to relational contract, but the relationship was only found for the Chinese sample. The impact of the individualistic cultural value on the type of psychological contract one forms with the employer is uncertain, but the individualism value was found to have a mediator effect between age and transactional contract type for the Chinese sample. Practical implications – The study contributes evidence that can help explain why employees who face the same job conditions and employment relationships may develop different psychological contracts with their employers. The finding on the mediating effect of individualism between age and transactional contract highlight challenges faced by managers in China’s changing economy in terms of motivating and



References: Barrick, R.M. and Mount, M.K. (1991), ‘‘The big five personality dimensions and job performance: a meta-analysis’’, Personnel Psychology, Vol. 44, pp. 1-26. Costa, P.T. and McCrae, R.R. (1988), ‘‘Personality in adulthood: a six-year longitudinal study of self-reports and spouse ratings on the NEO personality inventory’’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 54, pp. 853-63. Costa, P.T. and McCrae, R.R. (1992), Revised NEO Personality Inventory and NEO Five-Factor Inventory Professional Manual, Psychological Assessment Resources, Odessa, FL. Coyle-Sharpiro, J. and Kessler, I. (2000), ‘‘Consequences of psychological contract for the employment relationship: a large scale survey’’, The Journal of Management Studies, Vol. 37 No. 7, pp. 903-30. Goldberg, L.R. (1990), ‘‘An alternative ‘description of personality’: the big five factor structure’’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 86, pp. 1270-9. Hui, C., Lee, C. and Rousseau, D.M. (2001), ‘‘Psychological contract and organizational citizenship behavior in China: investing generalizability and instrumentality’’, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 89 No. 2, pp. 311-21. Huseman, C.R., Hatfield, D.J. and Miles, W.E. (1987), ‘‘‘A new perspective on equity theory’ The equity sensitivity construct’’, Academy of Management Review, Vol. 12, pp. 222-34. James, L.R. and Brett, J.M. (1984), ‘‘Mediators, moderators, and tests for mediation’’, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 69 No. 2, pp. 307-21. 302 Judge, T.A. and Bono, J.E. (2001), ‘‘Relationship of core self-evaluations traits – self-esteem, generalized self-efficacy, locus of control, and emotional stability – with job satisfaction and job performance: a meta-analysis’’, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 86, pp. 80-92. Kickul, J., Lester, S.W. and Belgio, E. (2004), ‘‘Attitudinal and behavioral outcomes of psychological contract breach: a cross-cultural comparison of the United States and Hong Kong Chinese’’, International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, Vol. 4, pp. 229-52. King, R.C. and Bu, N. (2005), ‘‘Perceptions of the mutual obligations between employees and employers: a comparative study of new generation IT professionals in China and the United States’’, International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 16 No. 1, pp. 46-64. Lee, C., Tinsley, C.H. and Chen, Z.X. (2000), ‘‘Psychological normative contracts of work group members in the US and Hong Kong’’, in Rousseau, D.M. and Schalk, R. (Eds), Psychological Contracts in Employment: Cross-National Perspectives, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA. Li, H.Z., Zhang, Z., Bhatt, G. and Yum, Y.K. (2006), ‘‘Rethinking culture as self-construal: China as a middle ground’’, Journal of Social Psychology, Vol. 146 No. 5, pp. 591-610. Liao-Troth, M.A. (2005), ‘‘Are they here for the long haul? The effects of functional motives and personality factors on the psychological contracts of volunteers’’, Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Vol. 34 No. 4, pp. 510-30. Meyer, J.P., Stanley, D.J., Herscovitch, L. and Topolnytsky, L. (2002), ‘‘Affective, continuance, and normative commitment to the organization: a meta-analysis of antecedents, correlates, and consequences’’, Journal of Vocational Behavior, Vol. 61, pp. 20-52. Miller, D., Kets De Vries, M.F.R. and Toulouse, J.M. (1982), ‘‘Top executive locus of control, and its relationship to strategy-making, structure, and environment’’, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 25, pp. 237-53. Morrison, E.W. and Robinson, S.L. (1997), ‘‘When employees feel betrayed: a model of how psychological contract violation develops’’, Academy of Management Review, Vol. 16, pp. 92-120. O’Neil, B.S. and Mone, M.A. (1998), ‘‘Investigating equity sensitivity as a moderator of relations between self-efficacy and workplace attitudes’’, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 83, pp. 805-16. Raja, U., Johns, G. and Ntalianis, F. (2004), ‘‘The impact of personality on psychological contracts’’, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 47 No. 3, pp. 350-67. Ramamoorthy, N. and Carroll, S.J. (1998), ‘‘Individualism/collectivism orientations and reactions toward alternative human resource management practices’’, Human Relations, Vol. 51 No. 5, pp. 571-88. Ramamoorthy, N. and Flood, P.C. (2002), ‘‘Employee attitudes and behavioral intentions: a test of the main and moderating effects of individualism-collectivism orientations’’, Human Relations, Vol. 55 No. 9, pp. 1071-96. Ramamoorthy, N., Gupta, A., Sardessai, R.M. and Flood, P.C. (2005), ‘‘Individualism/collectivism and attitudes toward human resource systems: a comparative study of American, Irish, and Indian MBA students’’, International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 16 No. 5, pp. 852-69. Rotter, J.B. (1966), ‘‘Generalized expectations for internal vs. external reinforcement’’, Psychological Monographs, Vol. 80 (whole no. 609). Rousseau, D.M. (1989), ‘‘Psychological and implied contracts in organizations’’, Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, Vol. 2, pp. 121-39. Rousseau, D.M. (1995), Psychological contracts in organizations: Understanding written and unwritten agreements, Sage Publications, Newbury Park. Psychological contract 303 MRN 31,4 304 Rousseau, D.M. (1997), ‘‘Organizational behavior in the new organizational era’’, Annual Review of Psychology, Vol. 48, pp. 515-46. Rousseau, D.M. and Schalk, R. (2000), ‘‘Introduction’’, in Rousseau, D.M. and Schalk, R. (Eds), Psychological Contracts: Cross-national Perspectives, Sage, London, pp. 1-28. Rousseau, D.M. (2001), ‘‘Schema, promise, and mutuality: the building blocks of the psychological contract’’, Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, Vol. 74, pp. 511-41. Sauley, K.S. and Bedeian, A.G. (2000), ‘‘Equity sensitivity: construction of a measure and examination of its psychometric properties’’, Journal of Management, Vol. 26 No. 5, pp. 885-910. Semykina, A. and Linz, S.J. (2006), ‘‘Gender differences in personality and earnings: evidence from Russia’’, Journal of Economic Psychology, Vol. 28, pp. 387-410. Spector, P. (1988) ‘‘Development of the work locus of control scale’’, Journal of Occupational Psychology, Vol. 61, pp. 335-40. Stewart, G.L. (1996), ‘‘Reward structure as a moderator of the relationship between extraversion and sales performance’’, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 81, pp. 619-27. Thomas, D.C. and Au, K. (2002), ‘‘The effect of cultural differences on behavioral responses to low job satisfaction’’, Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 33 No. 2, pp. 309-26. Thomas, D.C., Au, K. and Ravlin, E.C. (2003), ‘‘Cultural variation and the psychological contract’’, Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol. 24, pp. 451-71. Triandis, H.C. (1995), Individualism and collectivism, Westview, Boulder, CO. Westwood, R., Sparrow, P. and Leung, A. (2001), ‘‘Challenges to the psychological contract in Hong Kong’’, International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 12 No. 4, pp. 621-51. Further reading Grimmer, M. and Oddy, M. (2007), ‘‘Violation of the psychological contract: the mediating effect of relational versus transaction beliefs’’, Australian Journal of Management, Vol. 32 No. 1, pp. 153-74. Judge, T.A., Bono, J.E. and Locke, E.A. (2000), ‘‘Personality and job satisfaction: the mediating role of job characteristics’’, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 85, pp. 237-49. Miles, E.W., Hatfield, J.D. and Huseman, R.C. (1994), ‘‘Equity sensitivity and outcome importance’’, Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol. 15, pp. 585-96. About the authors Jun Zhao is an Associate Professor of Management within the College of Business and Public Administration, Governors State University in University Park, IL, USA. She received her DBA from Southern Illinois University at Carbondale. Her research interests include corporate restructuring, organizational downsizing, psychological contract, and cross-cultural management studies. She has published papers in the Academy of Management Review and various national and international conference proceedings. Jun Zhao is the corresponding author and can be contacted at: j-zhao@govst.edu Lijun Chen is an associate professor in the Government Department of the College of Public Administration, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China. She received her PhD from the College of Science, Zhejiang University Psychology Department. She is a 2006-2007 Fulbright Research Scholar in the Raj Soin College of Business, Wright State University, USA. Her research interests include individual and organizational integrity, integrity tests, business ethics, psychological contract, and cross-cultural management. To purchase reprints of this article please e-mail: reprints@emeraldinsight.com Or visit our web site for further details: www.emeraldinsight.com/reprints Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Good Essays

    Individualism & Collectivism: Collectivism is the degree to which people work together in groups and it is measured on group achievement. Individualism is the degree to which people work independently and is measured on personal achievement. Canada has a very high individualism and a very low collectivism. In contrast to Turkey whose collectivism is high and individualism is low. In societies like Canada there is a strong sense of competition. People expect from each other to fulfill their own…

    • 409 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at www.emeraldinsight.com/0951-354X.htm Individualism-collectivism and job satisfaction between Malaysia and Australia Fauziah Noordin Faculty of Business Management, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Selangor, Malaysia, and Individualismcollectivism and job satisfaction 159 Kamaruzaman Jusoff Tropical Resources Institute, New Haven, Connecticut, USA Abstract Purpose – One of the main issues that many organizations will face…

    • 7833 Words
    • 32 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Better Essays

    contexts, followed by the factors affercting behavioral responses in horizontal individualism and vertical collectivism cultures. The last chapter will consist of summary of factors, recommendations for global managers how to enhance cross cultural work, and conclusion. Individualism and collectivism According to Hoftsede, there are six dimensions that differ countries among each other. They are: power distance, individualism, masculinity, uncertainty avoidance, pragmatism and indulgence. However, this…

    • 1075 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Better Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    1. Compare and contrast individualism and collectivism as discussed in Estep: ch. 9. Humans are designed to cultivate both individualism and collectivism – let me explain. Both are good if used appropriately. The problem is when either is used exclusively, to the abandonment of the other. As individuals, humans are expected to grow and mature; a person accepts Christ individually. On the Day of Judgment, humans will be held to account for their actions and behaviors individually. It is this…

    • 1041 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    A search for Individualism and Collectivism . Questions and Answers. 1) Describe your example of Individualism and explain why it illustrates Individualism. Answer: What are the meaning of Individualism? What I understand is, Individualism stands for a society in which the ties between Individuals are loose. Individualist are so independence, they doesn’t not rely in anyone. Because they believe they can handle it by their own. And they put their self priority first/important family members…

    • 429 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Persuasive Essay Collectivism and individualism both were originally just different assortment of behaviors adopted in different regions around the world. Similar to the concept of customs and traditions, it’s almost impossible to identify a specific date to when a culture started. Basically, the emergence and prominence of international media was one of the strongest factors that helped in introducing and illustrating different political, intellectual, social, economical and many other differences…

    • 2845 Words
    • 12 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    Assignment I: Understanding & Evaluating Key Course Concepts By Mohammad Charanek Individualism and collectivism are two conflicting views on an ideological spectrum. In the word itself, individualism means the importance of individuals and collectivism means placing a group rights over individual rights. However, this doesn't mean that having an individualistic ideology makes a person greedy or selfish they are simply dealing with reality. People with this ideology believe that no personal sacrifices…

    • 581 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Better Essays

    Individualism and Collectivism Culture Abstract This essay discusses different aspects of Individualism and collectivism culture. Although every culture is different, Individualist and collectivism have a different implication for social organization. In this essay I able use my personal experience as a foreigner to help the readers understand the subject. In addition to the research I have done I was able to find information to help me fully understand how the two concepts impacted different…

    • 1491 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Better Essays
  • Good Essays

    Individualism vs. Collectivism Within Christianity, I believe that Christian’s in the United States use collectivism more so then other cultures. Because I live in the United States, I’m not as aware of what others around the world do when it comes to the use of collectivism within Christianity. This effected my decision and may change a little after I look at this situation from another prospective after our trip in Guatemala. Around the United States we have a large number of denominations…

    • 497 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    This paper explores the concept of individualism versus collectivism, from a public health perspective. The harm done when we as a nation view issues, specifically public health issues, from a singular lens. As defined in the text by F. Scutchifeld and C. Keck public health is an organized activity of society to promote, protect, improve, and when neccssary, restore the health of individuals, specified groups or the entire population. With this definition, one could make the argument for what is…

    • 866 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Good Essays