Conflict, stress &
What is Personality?
Traits & types
The big five factors
Slefl & self-image
Personality & work
What is personality?
Personality is the total pattern of characteristic ways of thinking, feeling and behaving that constitute the
Debate about how far the factors of heredity (nature) and environment (nurture) influence personality. There are two main approaches.
1. The nomothetic approach- personality is more or less fixed & various aspects of personality (traits) are the same from individual to individual. Individuals possess selection of these traits, which tend to go together in compatible trait clusters, effectively dividing people into personality types.
2. The ideographic approach-individualizes. Personality develops through interaction with the environment (experience) & in
accordance with how the individual sees himself. Personality form therefore be studied only as a picture of a particular individual at a particular time.
The Big Five Factors (OCEAN)
The Big Five Factors
The facets that make up each
Openness to experiencedescribes an individual’s proactive Artistic interests
seeking & appreciation of
experience for its own sake
how organized, motivated &
thorough an individual is in life &
in pursuing goals.
Sense of duty
energetic & enthusiastic a person
is –especially when dealing with
Agreeableness- describes a
person’s attitudes towards other
Neuroticism or natural
Attempts to look at whole people, as they are & as they
Self & Self-image
Personality is the complex product of a dynamic process
whereby the individual interacts with his or her environment & other people through experience.
Self has two components: noted by George Herbert Mead(1934) i. I- the unique, active , impulsive part of the individual
ii. Me-the mental process which reflects objectively on the self & measures it against the social norms, values & expectations
. Similar tension is the basis of Sigmund Freud’s psychological constructs, the “ego”, “id” & ‘super-ego’.
. Self-image-subjective picture of what their own self is like: . It is developed primarily through experience & interaction with other people, particularly, important people.
Personality & work behavior
(see in page 120)
• Personalities are complex & individual.
• traits & types of personality can be observed
individual behavior at work.
a) The compatibility of individual’s personality with
b) The compatibility of an individual’s personality
with the systems & management culture of the
c) The compatibility of the individual’s personality
with that of others in the team)
see in page 122
What is perception?
is psychological process by which stimuli or
in-coming sensory data are selected &
organized into patterns which are
meaningful to the individual.
Like personality, perception is highly
complex & highly individual.
It is not possible to draw up detailed
prescriptions for how people’s perceptions
can be analyzed & utilized by
However, here are some general principles.
Perception & Work Behavior
If individuals act in ways that seem illogical or contrary to you,
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