Indian National Movement

Topics: Indian independence movement, Jawaharlal Nehru, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi Pages: 6 (724 words) Published: December 5, 2014
Introduction
Revolt

Of 1857
Formation Of INC
Extremists and Moderates
Jallianwala Bagh Massacre
Gandhian

Era
Non-Cooperation Movement
Civil Disobedience Movement
Quit India movement
 Independence
Sources

Introduction

The appointment in 1848 of Lord
Dalhousie as Governor General of the
East India Company set the stage for
changes essential to a modern state.
These included the consolidation and
demarcation of sovereignty, the
surveillance of the population, and
the education of citizens. However,
disaffection with the Company also
grew during this time.

Revolt Of 1857
In the late 1700s and early 1800s, sepoys
tended to take great pride in their
military prowess, and they exhibited
enormous loyalty to their British officers.
But in the 1830s and 1840s tensions
began to emerge. The reasons are :Increasing numbers of Christian missionaries began arriving in India, and
this led to resentment.
Doctrine of lapse.
Coating over rifle cartridges.

On March 29, 1857, a sepoy named
Mangal Pandey fired the first shot of
the uprising. As the mutiny spread,
the British began called mutineers
"pandies.“
Fighting in some places continued well
into 1858, but the British were
ultimately able to establish control.
As mutineers were captured, they
were often killed on the spot. And
many were executed in dramatic
fashion.

Formation Of INC
The

foundations of the Indian National Movement
were laid by Suredranath Banerjee with the
formation of Indian Association at Calcutta in 1876.
The aim of the Association was to represent the
views of the educated middle class, inspire
the Indian community to take the value of united
action.
The Indian National Congress, was founded, with
the help of A.O. Hume, a retired British official.
The birth of Indian National Congress (INC) in 1885
marked the entry of new educated middle-class into
politics and transformed the Indian political horizon.

The

first session of the Indian National Congress
was held in Bombay in December 1885 under
the president ship of Womesh Chandra Banerjee
King George V made two announcements in
Delhi: firstly, the partition of Bengal, which had
been effected in 1905, was annulled and,
secondly, it was announced that the capital of
India was to be shifted from Calcutta to Delhi.
The disgust with the reforms announced in 1909
led to the intensification of the struggle for
Swaraj.
 To add to the already growing discontent
among the people, Rowlatt Act was passed in
1919, which empowered the Government to put
people in jail without trial.

Jallianwala Bagh Massacre
Jalianwala

Bagh massacre of April 13, 1919
was one of the most inhuman acts of the
British rulers in India.
The people of Punjab gathered on the
auspicious day of Baisakhi at Jalianwala Bagh,
to lodge their protest peacefully against
persecution by the British Indian Government.
General Dyer appeared suddenly with his
armed police force and fired indiscriminately
at innocent empty handed people leaving
hundreds of people dead, including women
and children.

Gandhian Era
Mohandas

Karamchand Gandhi became
the undisputed leader of the Congress.
During this struggle, Mahatma Gandhi had
developed the novel technique of nonviolent agitation, which he called 'Satyagraha', loosely translated as 'moral
domination'.
Gandhi, himself a devout Hindu, also
espoused a total moral philosophy of
tolerance, brotherhood of all religions, nonviolence (ahimsa) and of simple living.

Non-Cooperation Movement
Was

pitched in under leadership of
Mahatma Gandhi and the Indian
National Congress from September
1920 to February.
Was a great success as it got massive
encouragement to millions of Indians.
He planned to withdraw the
nation's cooperation from the
British Government.

Civil Disobedience Movement
 Was

launched in the Congress Session
of December 1929.
 The...
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