In the Caribbean, shift to slave labor was faster as supply of indentured servants was inadequate. Slaves were treated brutally using a code of Force and Terror.
In the Chesapeake, shift to slave labor was gradual and because English common law did not acknowledge chattel slavery, it was possible for some to be freed by Christian baptism, purchase freedom from owners, or win freedom in courts, etc. This changed with the collapse of the Tobacco boom. By 1671, Virginia House of Burgesses forbid Africans to own guns or join the militia, owning English servants even if baptized and free.