'A culture of learning is characterised by a shared view that all members are learners of a valued and shared curriculum' (Morton, Rietveld, Guerin, Mcilroy, Duke, 2012). This gives an understanding that all members of a school, both staff and students, are considered learners when in a school setting. Both teacher and student learn from and with other teachers, as well as from other students in and out of classrooms. In relation to the curriculum, the Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority clearly state the curriculum is for all students, giving all students the opportunity to learn and that every student's needs are important (ACARA, 2014). The curriculum can be viewed three different ways according to Smith and Barr (2008), curriculum as fact, curriculum as activity and curriculum as inquiry. The first view, curriculum as fact, puts emphasis on learning being the transmission of facts in increasing complexity, with the teacher being the expert and the student being the receiver. The second view, curriculum as activity, again puts the emphasis on the teacher being the expert and the student being the recipient but the curriculum is viewed as a series of activities and that students are learning by connecting old and new ideas. The final view of curriculum as inquiry views learning as the building of knowledge through interaction with others and to learn we acquire knowledge and become a part of a community of learners. Assessment has changed from traditional assessment into the form of assessment it is today because of the way assessment is viewed. Traditional assessment was used to document whether students had certain abilities or capabilities and ability was considered inherent and was beyond the teacher's role to change or influence the student. Today's assessment has moved away from reporting on student performance so that the focus of the assessment approach is describing and understanding how students learn, with the belief that all...
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