In Linux, the Flow of Control During a Boot Is from Bios, to Boot Loader, to Kernel. the Kernel Then Starts the Scheduler (to Allow Multi-Tasking) and Runs the First Userland (I.E. Outside Kernel Space) Program Init (

Topics: Operating system, Microsoft Windows, Windows XP Pages: 3 (752 words) Published: January 21, 2013
In Linux, the flow of control during a boot is from BIOS, to boot loader, to kernel. The kernel then starts the scheduler (to allow multi-tasking) and runs the first userland (i.e. outside kernel space) program Init (which is mostly responsible to run startup scripts for each runlevel), at which point the kernel goes idle unless called externally. init (short for initialization) is a program for Unix-based computer operating systems that spawns all other processes. It runs as a daemon and typically has PID 1. The boot loader starts the kernel and the kernel starts init. If one were to delete init without a replacement, the system would encounter a kernel panic on the next reboot. In detail:

The BIOS performs hardware-platform specific startup tasks
Once the hardware is recognized and started correctly, the BIOS loads and executes the partition boot code from the designated boot device, which contains phase 1 of a Linux boot loader. Phase 1 loads phase 2 (the bulk of the boot loader code). Some loaders may use an intermediate phase (known as phase 1.5) to achieve this since modern large disks may not be fully readable without further code. The boot loader often presents the user with a menu of possible boot options. It then loads the operating system, which decompresses into memory, and sets up system functions such as essential hardware and memory paging, before calling start_kernel(). start_kernel() then performs the majority of system setup (interrupts, the rest of memory management, device initialization, drivers, etc.) before spawning separately, the idle process and scheduler, and the Init process (which is executed in user space). The Init process executes scripts as needed that set up all non-operating system services and structures in order to allow a user environment to be created, and then presents the user with a login screen. On shutdown, Init is called to close down all user space functionality in a controlled manner, again via scripted directions,...
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