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his hobby is to read boStudy skills or study strategies are approaches applied to learning. ... Methods based on communication skills e.g. : reading and listening - ... oksThese peer helpers possess additional insights into life as well as ... teamwork and communication skills, helping to boost their self- ... graphics or illustration – to enhance the communication of their ideas. whose skills create understandable, interpretive documents of a ... Crew resource management or cockpit resource management (CRM) is a set of training procedures for use in environments where human error can have devastating effects. Used primarily for improving air safety, CRM focuses on interpersonal communication, leadership, and decision making in the cockpit.
Crew resource management
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Crew resource management or cockpit resource management (CRM) is a set of training procedures for use in environments where human error can have devastating effects. Used primarily for improving air safety, CRM focuses on interpersonal communication, leadership, and decision making in the cockpit. CRM grew out of an NTSB analysis of the crash of United Airlines Flight 173 where the plane ran out of fuel while the flight crew were troubleshooting a landing gear problem. The NTSB issued its landmark recommendation to require CRM training for airline crews on June 7, 1979. A few weeks later, NASA held a workshop on the topic, endorsing this innovative training. United Airlines was the first airline to provide CRM training for its cockpit crews in 1981. Since that time, CRM training concepts have been modified for application to a wide range of activities where people must make dangerous time-critical decisions. These arenas include air traffic control, ship handling, firefighting, and medical operating rooms. Contents [hide]
2 Case studies
2.1 United Airlines Flight 173
2.2 United Airlines Flight 232
2.3 Air France Flight 447
3 Adoption in related fields
4 Firefighting application
6 See also
8 External links
CRM aviation training has gone by several names, including cockpit resource management, flightdeck resource management, and command, leadership, and resource management, but the current generic term, crew resource management, was widely adopted. When CRM techniques are applied to other arenas, they are sometimes given unique labels, such as maintenance resource management or maritime resource management. CRM training encompasses a wide range of knowledge, skills, and attitudes including communications, situational awareness, problem solving, decision making, and teamwork; together with all the attendant sub-disciplines which each of these areas entails. CRM can be defined as a management system which makes optimum use of all available resources - equipment, procedures and people - to promote safety and enhance the efficiency of operations. CRM is concerned with the cognitive and interpersonal skills needed to manage resources within an organized system, not so much with the technical knowledge and skills required to operate equipment. In this context, cognitive skills are defined as the mental processes used for gaining and maintaining situational awareness, for solving problems and for making decisions. Interpersonal skills are regarded as communications and a range of behavioral activities associated with teamwork. In many operational systems as in other walks of life, skill areas often overlap with each other, and they also overlap with the required technical skills. Furthermore, they are not confined to multi-crew craft or equipment, but also relate to single operator equipment or craft as they invariably need to interface with other craft or equipment and various other support agencies in order to complete a mission successfully. CRM training for crew has been introduced and developed...
^ Jump up to: a b Diehl, Alan (2013) "Air Safety Investigators: Using Science to Save Lives-One Crash at a Time." Xlibris Corporation
Jump up ^ Helmreich, R. L.; Merritt, A. C.; Wilhelm, J. A. (1999). "The Evolution of Crew Resource Management Training in Commercial Aviation". International Journal of Aviation Psychology 9 (1): 19–32. doi:10.1207/s15327108ijap0901_2. PMID 11541445.
Jump up ^ Diehl, Alan (June, 1994). "Crew Resource Management...It 's Not Just for Fliers Anymore." Flying Safety, USAF Safety Agency.
Jump up ^ Diehl, Alan (November 5, 1992) "The Effectiveness of Civil and Military Cockpit Management Training Programs." Flight Safety Foundation, 45th International Air Safety Seminar, Long Beach, CA.
Jump up ^ International Association of Fire Chiefs (2003). "Crew Resource Management: A positive change for the fire service". Retrieved 6 September 2010.
Jump up ^ International Civil Aviation Organization,Circular 153-An/56, Mortreal, Canada, 1978)
Jump up ^ http://www.popularmechanics.com/technology/aviation/crashes/10-airplane-crashes-that-changed-aviation#slide-1
Jump up ^ Otelli, Jean-Pierre (October 13, 2011). Erreurs de pilotage Tome 5 [Pilot Error vol. 5] (in French). Altipresse. ISBN 979-1-090465-03-9.
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