Important Essays on History and the Evolution of the World
Republic: the new form of government the Romans made where the people chose officials.
Senate: the most powerful governing body in the republic.
Patricians: upper class. (The senate was mostly made up of them)
Plebeians: farmers, workers, artisans, and traders. Made up most of the population. Had little power (lower class.) [Later on in the empire, they gained more power and were allowed t elect their own officials and serve in government jobs.)
Pax Romana: =”roman peace” the roman golden age that started with the rule of Augustus. He turned the republic in to an absolute monarchy. The Romans spread stability over a large part of the world. It lasted for 200 years.
Laws of the twelve tables: the plebeians said that they wouldn’t know what the laws were unless they were written down. So they displayed laws on 12 tablets in the market place.
Aqueducts: bridge-like stone structures that carried water from the hills to the cities. The Roman Empire started in 509 BC after driving out the Etruscans. In arts and architecture, they borrowed many Greek concepts in arts and architecture but instead of being simple their designs were “ornamented.” The empire had expanded a lot, which led to increased corruption, and a bigger gap between the rich and the poor. In law, they had a system of “innocent until proven guilty,” which is a system we use today. In engineering, they made aqueducts (see above). They also had good infrastructure and built many roads, bridges, and harbors. Trade: The Empire traded with Egypt for grain, Africa for ivory gold and lions, India for cotton and spices, and China for silk. They built roads that promoted trade and made the empire wealthy, as well as used the Mediterranean Sea, which was a “natural highway.” New coins were used to make trade easier.
The Roman army was strong and therefore able to conquer a lot of land. They treated conquered people well and let them keep their