Beginning of human civilization
The emergence of civilization is generally associated with the final stages of the Neolithic Revolution, a slow cumulative process occurring independently over many locations between 10,000 and 3,000 BCE, reaching in the relatively rapid process of state formation, a political development associated with the appearance of a governing elite. Neolithic Revolution, sometimes called the Agricultural Revolution, was the world's first historically verifiable revolution in agriculture. It was the wide-scale transition of many human cultures from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement which supported an increasingly large population.
Archaeological data indicates that the domestication of various types of plants and animals evolved in separate locations worldwide, starting in the geological epoch of the Holocene around 12,000 years ago. The Holocene also encompasses within it the growth and impacts of the human species world-wide, including all its written history and overall significant transition toward urban living in the present. Human impacts of the modern era on the Earth and its ecosystems may be considered of global significance for future evolution of living species, including approximately synchronous lithospheric evidence, or more recently atmospheric evidence of human impacts. Given these, a new term Anthropocene, is specifically proposed and used informally only for the very latest part ofmodern history and of significant human impact since the epoch of the Neolithic Revolution (around 12,000 years BP).
This neolithic technology and lifestyle was established first in the Middle east (for example at Göbekli Tepe, from about 9,130 BCE), and Yangtze and later Yellow river basin in China (for example the Pengtoushan culture from 7,500 BCE), and later spread. But similar "revolutions" also began independently from 9,000 years ago in such places as Mesoamerica at the Balsas River and in Papua New Guinea. This revolution consisted in the development of the domestication of plants and animals and the development of new sedentary lifestyles which allowed economies of scale and productive surpluses.
Towards the end of the Neolithic period, various Bronze Age civilizations began to rise in various "cradles" from around 3300 BCE. Civilizations, as defined above, also developed in Pre-Columbian Americas and much later in Africa. The Bronze Age collapse was followed by the Iron Age around 1200 BCE, which saw a number of new civilisations emerge, culminating in the Axial Agetransition to Classical civilisation. A major technological and cultural transition to modernity began approximately 1500 CE in Western Europe and from this beginning new approaches to science and law spread rapidly around the world. Ancient Egypt is a canonical example of an early culture considered a civilization
Present status of human civilization:
Civilization is a continuous un-ending process with developed cultures, countries and people continuously looking forward to new horizons but still leaving behind a huge undeveloped portion and human beings.
Practically in each country may it be in USA, Europe, Africa, Asia or Australia irrespective of the per capital income or GDP of the country few facts as under can be commonly and distinctly seen like:
That the wealth is not evenly distributed or shared between the people of the countries thereby catagories of people like rich , poor and middle class are created That the civilizations are based on Culture, Cast, creed and religions In each country in each continent the civilized human being prefer to stay in groups Most importantly that the human population is divided and settled down in in Urban and Rural areas Economically, civilizations display more complex patterns of ownership and exchange than less organized societies. Living in one place allows people to accumulate more personal possessions than nomadic people
Urban v/s Rural
It is generally seen that there is remarkable difference between taste, status, culture, values, habits and overall approach towards life of the people staying in rural areas and people staying or migrated in urban areas. And as a matter of fact this difference prevails in all parts of the world.
An urban area is characterized by higher population density and vast human features in comparison to the areas surrounding it. Urban areas may be cities, towns or conurbations, but the term is not commonly extended to rural settlements such as villages and hamlets.
The Greater Tokyo Area world's most populous metropolitan area
In general, a rural area is a geographic area that is located outside cities and towns. The word "rural" is considered as encompassing all population, housing, and territory not included within an urban area i.e. in short whatever is not urban is considered rural. Typical rural areas have a low population density and small settlements. Agricultural areas are commonly rural, though so are others such as forests. Different countries have varying definitions of "rural" for statistical and administrative purposes.
Typical rural area –commonly seen in various countries
It can distinctly experienced that the approach towards the space, its designing and utilization and the emphasis given by the human being staying in rural areas is quiet different than those of urban population which needs to be understood.
It is generally observed and is loudly indicated from the life pattern of the rural population that there approach is more ‘inside out’. The typical house in rural area is seen with gate open for visitors.
Typical village house demarcating boundaries with wall but ‘open’ entrance gate
The rural population is seen as more welcoming and open hearted to the visitors. The barriers are mainly seen at conceptional level. People in rural areas are seen getting happily involved more in group activities rather than individualistic activities. The festivals, functions , marriages etc are seen being celebrated with closeness and people are seen helping each other in some or the other forms. The owner of the individual space in rural area is seen more open to share his space with others during the festivals, functions , marriages etc. The compound walls as seen in rural areas are just a significance of space. The interaction amongst each other is generally seen without barricades with people visiting each other more frequently. At many a places, the compound walls are missing or are just depicted symbolically with small shrubs or flower quarries etc.
Country side house in Europe demarcating boundaries with simple floor pots
As against the behavior of rural citizen the behavior of urban citizen is seen in contrast. The bonds of human relations are getting weak in urban society and the houses with high raised compound walls, gated colonies, gated townships etc. is becoming urban lifestyle. The high raised compound walls of urban houses and bungalows strongly demarcate the territories and closed gates with restricting entrance to the visitors
The gates and walls of modern day urban houses need the visitor to take permission of the occupier of the house. There are barricades of different nature between the two. The relations and attachment amongst the people in urban society is slowly disintegrating