Implementation of Distributed Generation in the Dutch Lv Network

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| Implementation of Distributed Generation in the Dutch LV Network | Towards a Self-Supporting Residential Area | | | |

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Content Preface 1 1. Summary 4 2. Introduction 8 Part A: Background Information 3. New Scenario of Distributed Generation 10 3.1 Opportunities 10 3.2 Challenges for the network operator 11 3.3 Alternative Operational Approach 13

Part B Case Study Approach 4. The Integrated System 15 4.1 The low voltage network 16 4.2 The Generators 17 4.2.1 Stirling Engine Combined Heat and Power 17 4.2.2 Photovoltaic Arrays 18 4.3 Battery energy storage 18 5. The Scenarios 20 6. The Energy Balance 23 6.1 Demand-Side 23 6.2 Supply-Side 23 6.2.1 Heat Supply 24 6.2.2 Electricity Supply 24 6.3 Battery Energy Storage 26 7. The Assessment 27

Part C: Case Study Results 8. The Energy Balance 29 8.1 Demand-Side 29 8.1.1 Heat Demand 29 8.1.2 Electricity Demand 34 8.1.3 Heat and Electricity Demand Profiles 35 8.2 Supply-Side 36 8.2.1 Heat Supply 37 8.2.2 Results Heat Supply 40 8.2.3 Electricity Supply 42 8.2.4 Results Electricity Supply 45 8.3 Battery Energy Storage 47 8.3.1 Peak Power 48 8.3.2 Capacity 49 9. The Assessment 52 9.1 Reversed power flow 53 9.2 System Losses 54 9.3 Voltage levels 55 9.4 Transformer loads 57 10. Discussion 58 10.1 Generator Control 58 10.2 Storage Control 59 10.3 Increase photovoltaic power 60 10.4 Question Marks 61 11. Conclusion 62 12. Recommendations 64 References 65 Nomenclature 67

Appendices Appendix A Demand-Side 68 Appendix A1 Heat Demand 68 Appendix A2. Electricity Demand 68 Appendix A3. Sources Demand Surveys 69 Appendix B (Heat-)Power Balance 69 Appendix C. Electrical Power Profiles Detached House 70 Appendix D Vision Macro 73 Appendix E Battery Energy Storage 76 Appendix E.1 Average scenario in January 76 Appendix E2 Average scenario in April 77 Appendix E3



References: [2]. EnergieNed (2004). Energie in Nederland 2004. [3] [4]. de Jong, A. et al (2006). Technisch energie- en CO2- besparingspotentieel van micro-wkk in Nederland (2010-2030). Unpublished. [5]. Boerakker, M. et al (2005). Een blik op de toekomst met SAWEC; Een analyse van het woninggebonden energiegebruik voor de periode 2000-2020. ECN-C--05-070. [6] [7]. EnergieNed (2000) Basisonderzoek Aargasverbruik Kleinverbruikers BAK 2000. [8]. EnergieNed (2007) Energie in Nederland 2007. [9] [10]. EnergieNed (2006). Basisonderzoek Warmte Kleinverbruik BWK 2005. [12]. Abu-Sharkh, S. et al (2006). Can microgrids make a major contribution to UK energy supply, Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, 10, 78-127 [13] [14]. Lasseter, R.H. (2002). Microgrids, IEEE Power Engineering Society Winter Meeting [15] [16]. Dondi, P. et al (2002). Network integration of distributed power generation, Journal of Power Sources, 106 ;1–9 [17] [18]. Vovos, P.N. et all (2007). Centralized and Distributed Voltage Control: Impact on Distributed Generation Penetration, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 22 (1): 476 [19] [20]. Canadian Renewable Energy Alliance (CanREA) (2006). Distributed Generation in Canada -Maximizing the benefits of renewable resources, Canadian Renewable Energy Alliance. [21]. Shafiu, A. et al (2004). Active management and protection of distribution networks with distributed generation, IEEE Power Engineering Society General Meeting, 1: 1098- 1103 [22] [23]. Barsali, S. et al (2002). Control techniques of Dispersed Generators to improve the continuity of electricity supply, IEEE Power Engineering Society Winter Meeting, 2: 789- 794 [24] [25]. Bayegan, M. (2001). A Vision of the Future Grid, IEEE Power Engineering Review, 21(12): 10-12 [26] [27]. Nikkhajoei, H. and Iravani, R. (2007). Steady-State Model and Power Flow Analysis of Electronically-Coupled Distributed Resource Units, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Publication, 22 (1): 721-728 [28] [29]. Kema (2002), Betrouwbaarheid elektriciteitsnetten in een geliberaliseerde markt, rapport: 40110117TDC 02-24787A. [30]. Seebregts, A.J. and Volkers, C.H. (2005). Monitoring Nederlandse Elektriciteitscentrales 2000-2004, ECN-C—05-090. [32]. Paddocktrial Apeldoorn (2008), Measurement overview Micro Combined Heat and Power, WhisperGen/MicroGen measurements. Unpublished. [33]. Lane, N.W. (2005). Commercialization Status of Free-Piston Stirling Machines, Proceedings of the 12th International Stirling Engine Conference. [34]. Kim, S. et al (2005). Performance Characterization of Sunpower Free-Piston Stirling Engines, 3rd International Energy Conversion Conference. [35]. Verhelst, B. (2004). Elektrische aansluiting van kleine WKK’s. [36]. Morren, J. (2006), Grid support by power electronic converters of Distributed Generation units, proefschrift TUDelft [37] [38]. Myrzik, M.J.A. (2005). 5N510_week5_storage, lecture-notes Distributed Generation. Unpublished. [39]. KNMI klimatologie (2005). Klimaatatlas van Nederland, de normaalperiode 1971-2000. [41]. Ecofys (2007), Excel spreadsheets of the electricity and gas demand fractions for the year 2007. Unpublished. [42]. Platform Versnelling Energieliberalisering, Profielenmethodiek aardgas versie 2.10, rapporten PVE, 2004 [43] [44]. Phase to Phase BV (2007), User manual Vision 6.1, 07-162 PMO [45]

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