Topics: Inventory, Value, Cost of goods sold Pages: 8 (3787 words) Published: October 16, 2014
Annals of the University of Petroşani, Economics, 11(4), 2011, 183-190


ABSTRACT: This paper presents some aspects regarding inventories. In many business inventories are the most important assets. The accounting for inventories is a major consideration for many entities because of its significance on both the income statement (cost of goods sold) and the statement of financial position. The complexity of accounting for inventories arises from several factors like: the high volume of activity, the various cost flow alternatives that are acceptable and the classification of inventories. KEY WORDS: inventories; assets; realizable value; cost of purchase; cost of inventories


Inventories are assets held for sale in the ordinary course of business, in the process of production for such sale or in the form of materials or supplies to be consumed in the production process or in the rendering of services. Inventories shall be measured at the lower of cost and net realizable value. The cost of inventories shall comprise all costs of purchase, costs of conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition.

The costs of purchase of inventories comprise the purchase price, import duties and other taxes (other than those subsequently recoverable by the entity from the taxing authorities), and transport, handling and other costs directly attributable to the acquisition of finished goods, materials and services. Trade discounts, rebates and other similar items are deducted in determining the costs of purchase. The costs of conversion of inventories include costs directly related to the units of production, such as direct labor. They also include a systematic allocation of fixed *

Lecturer, Ph.D., University of Petroșani, Romania,


Monea, A.

and variable production overheads that are incurred in converting materials into finished goods. Fixed production overheads are those indirect costs of production that remain relatively constant regardless of the volume of production, such as depreciation and maintenance of factory buildings and equipment, and the cost of factory management and administration. Variable production overheads are those indirect costs of production that vary directly, or nearly directly, with the volume of production, such as indirect materials and indirect labor.

The allocation of fixed production overheads to the costs of conversion is based on the normal capacity of the production facilities. Normal capacity is the production expected to be achieved on average over a number of periods or seasons under normal circumstances, taking into account the loss of capacity resulting from planned maintenance. The actual level of production may be used if it approximates normal capacity. The amount of fixed overhead allocated to each unit of production is not increased as a consequence of low production or idle plant. Unallocated overheads are recognized as an expense in the period in which they are incurred. In periods of abnormally high production, the amount of fixed overhead allocated to each unit of production is decreased so that inventories are not measured above cost. Variable production overheads are allocated to each unit of production on the basis of the actual use of the production facilities. A production process may result in more than one product being produced simultaneously. This is the case, for example, when joint products are produced or when there is a main product and a by-product. When the costs of conversion of each product are not separately identifiable, they are allocated between the products on a rational and consistent basis. The allocation may be based, for example, on the relative sales value of each product either at the stage in the production process...

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