Beginning with the renaissance in Italy during the 17th century and ending with the reign of Napoleon the First, nationalism had been waiting to pop out of its paradigm shell. The spread of enlightenment ideals throughout Europe brought a liberal swing. People began to call for a more equal society, with a higher standard of living. Napoleons empire built a since of unity in Europe, causing the birth of nationalism, as in England and Germany. This since of nationalism brought forth economic competition between rivaling countries.
The Industrial Revolution began in the early 1700's with the invention of the steam engine. Fueled by a recent agricultural revolution, England was the first to Industrialize. With the creation of the steam engine, large factories began springing up, attracting workers and thereby creating small industrialized towns such as Manchester and Brighton. The Agricultural Revolution helped provide a large population, filling the factories' needs for workers. But with these towns there became a serous problem of over crowding in the cities. There were many good and bad effects of the Industrial Revolution. Some of the immediate effects included widespread hunger, the expanded use of child labor, and rapid urbanization. The positive effects included building of railroads, which eased transportation, and advances in science which helped people survive