Imperialism, Alliances, and War

Topics: World War I, Otto von Bismarck, German Empire Pages: 19 (5831 words) Published: January 30, 2014
AP European History
Chapter 25: imperialism, Alliances, and War

Chapter Overview:
After 1870, Europe exercised unprecedented influence and control over the rest of the world. European dominance brought every part of the globe into a single world economy. The new global economy increased hostility and led to intense nationalism. Section One: Expansion of European Power and the New Imperialism Section Overview

Explosive developments in nineteenth-century science, technology, industry, agriculture, transportation, communication, and military weapons. Europeans used these developments to impose their will upon others as they considered their civilization and way of life to be superior to all others. Although the early nineteenth century was generally hostile toward colonization, in the last decade of the century European states swiftly spread their control over perhaps ten million square miles and about 150 million people, The New Imperialism

Imperialism (definition): the policy of extending a nation’s authority by territorial acquisition or by establishing economic and political hegemony over other nations.” Characteristics of the “new imperialism”

European nations “invested” capital in less industrialized countries to develop mines and agriculture, to build railroads, bridges, harbors, and telegraph systems and to employ many natives in the process. To protect their investments, European states wither loaned the local governments money or intimidated them with force in order to create a favorable balance of trade. Sometimes direct rule or annexation took place

In some areas, European powers created “spheres of influence” in which they received special commercial and legal privileges without direct political involvement. Motives for the New Imperialism
Economic motivations
Lenin on imperialism
Competition in a capitalist economy inevitably eliminates inefficient capitalists and therefore leads to monopoly Capitalists run out of profitable areas in their countries’ and persuade their governments to gain colonies in “less developed” countries. The case of Britain proves Lenin’s theory wrong

Britain made heavier investments abroad before 1875 than during the next two decades it declined. European imperial powers did not rely heavily on their colonies for raw materials. Non-economic motivations

Social Darwinism and Imperialism
Some argued that advanced European nations had a duty to bring the benefits of their higher culture and superior civilization to more backward peoples. Religious groups insisted that their governments support their missionary efforts. Colonies would attract a European country’s surplus population. The Scramble for Africa (late 1870s to about 1900)

Motivation and control of Africa
Motivated by intense economic and political competition, they rationalized their expansionary policies on both religious and cultural grounds. European control forcefully entered Africa into the global economy. For centuries, European slave-trading bases had dotted the African coastline, but few Europeans had penetrated the interior but when the Congress of Vienna ended the Atlantic slave trade—and Africa was no longer a source of slave labor—Europeans began to explore the interior for raw materials. Ivory, rubber, minerals, and, notably, diamonds and gold to the West British, French, Belgians, Germans, Italians, and Portuguese sought to maximize their access to resources. Berlin Conference

German chancellor Otto von Bismarck called for a conference in Berlin in 1884-1885 to map out European-controlled Africa. Forms of European control in Africa
Diplomacy, superior force, direct, and indirect control was exercised over Africa by European powers. Justification for control of Africa
Europeans were bringing civilization to “savage” and “backward” natives. North Africa
Since Ottoman rule still existed in North Africa, European powers secured their interests primarily in two ways Economic penetration through...
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