WHAT IS IMPERIALISM? COMPARE AND
CONTRAST LIBERAL AND RADICAL
APPROACHES TO IMPERIALISM. WHICH ONE
OFFERS A PLAUSIBLE EXPLANATION TO WHAT
IS PREVAILING IN ZAMBIA TODAY?
The first part of this assignment will cover imperialism in general. The second part will deal with the liberal and radical approaches to imperialism. A plausible explanation to what is prevailing in Zambia today shall be covered in the third part and the assignment will finally be summarised in the conclusion.
Imperialism is defined as the creation and/or maintenance of an unequal economic, cultural, and territorial relationship, usually between states and often in the form of an empire, based on domination and subordination. It is often considered in a negative light, as merely the exploitation of native people in order to enrich a small handful (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imperialism). It is a system in which one country controls other countries, often after defeating them in a war. Imperialism is the fact of a powerful country increasing its influence over other countries through business, culture, etc (Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary, 1997). Imperialism can be said to be the economic control and exploitation of foreign lands arising from the necessity for counteracting the impediments to the accumulation of the capital engendered by the internal contradictions of the domestic capitalist economy (Claude Ake, 1981 , Page 20). Other sources define imperialism as the outward drive of certain peoples to build empiresboth formal colonies and privileged positions in markets, protected sources of materials and extended opportunities for profitable employment of labour. The concept has thus been associated with unequal economic relationship between states, not simply the inequality of large and small, rich and poor trading partners, but the inequality of political and economic dependence of the latter on the former. This is a useful definition from the point of view of the fact that it builds on some familiar and common sense notions of imperialism (Claude Ake, 1981 , Page 20).
The term imperialism dates as far back to antiquity and throughout history has taken many forms, though it was much pronounced in the age of industrialization during the European expansion after 1870. In the ancient world, imperialism manifested itself in a series of great empires that arose when one people, usually representing a particular civilization and religion, attempted to dominate all others by creating a unified system of control. The empire of Alexander the great and the Roman Empire are salient examples. (Encarta, 2005).
The term 'imperialism' should not be confused with ‘colonialism’ as it often is. Robert Young writes that imperialism operates from the center, it is a state policy, and is developed for ideological as well as financial reasons whereas colonialism is nothing more than development for settlement or commercial intentions
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imperialism). Colonialism implies formal political control, involving territorial annexation and loss of sovereignty. Imperialism on the other hand 2
implies broadly, to control or influence that is exercised either formally or informally, directly or indirectly, politically or economically. In no restrictively term, we can simply relate imperialism to solely the economic expansion of capitalist states. Additionally, these are policies of a state to take economic and political control of an area for the access to hard resources and market advantage not to mention the cultural concepts such as imposing a religion, traditions or a language of a nation. Imperialism is therefore the control of foreign lands for gains that are economic, political and ideological in nature. LIBERAL AND RADICAL APPROACHES TO IMPERIALISM
Imperialism can be explained in two theories. One way is by using the liberal approach and the other way is the radical...
References: Kabwe Chisanga Yiyaonse 2005: Theories of Social and Political change In Developing
Vladimir Lenin 1920, "Imperialism: The Highest Stage of Capitalism".
Ake C 1981, A Political Economy of Africa, Longman Nigeria.
Oxford Advanced Learner 's Dictionary, 7th Edition (1997). Oxford University Press.
Encarta, 2005 Version.
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