Impacts of Mega Event

Topics: Olympic Games, Summer Olympic Games, 2012 Summer Olympics Pages: 12 (3493 words) Published: May 30, 2013
Contents
1. Introduction2
2. Description of Event2
2.1 History2
2.2 Characteristics2
2.2.1 Form2
2.2.2 Theme and Design3
3. Event Experiences3
3.1 Target Market3
3.2 Stakeholders3
3.3 Meanings4
3.4 Motivations4
4. Outcomes of Event5
4.1 Social and Cultural outcomes5
4.1.1 Expenditure and investment in events5
4.1.2 Community participation5
4.1.3 Event-related development, activities and traffic6
4.1.4 Media Coverage6
4.2 Economic Outcomes7
4.2.1 New money and investment7
4.2.2 Displacement effect and time-switching7
4.3 Environmental Outcomes8
4.3.1 Ecological footprint8
4.3.2 Pollutions8
5. Evaluation of sustainability9
6. Recommendations10
7. Conclusion10
8. References11
9. Appendices13

Major Analytical Paper- London Olympic Games
1. Introduction
The Olympic Games is considered the most prestigious global sporting event that has great impacts on the host nation economically, socially and environmentally (Konstantaki & Wickens, 2010). The purpose of this paper focuses on the importance of hosting the Olympic Games in London through the evaluation on the impacts of the event using the triple bottom-line approach. The outcomes discussed deal with the positive and negative side; with effect to the tourism in United Kingdom (UK). The scope of this paper first covers the description of London Olympics; followed by the event experiences, outcomes, sustainability and lastly recommendation. 2. Description of Event

2.1 History
The International Olympic Committee (IOC) is formed in 1894, which sets the Olympic as an international four-yearly sports game to be hosted by different countries each time (Savic, 2007). In 2012, the summer Olympics returns to London for the third time (wheeler, 2012). London won the bid by taking almost half of the total votes, overcoming other strong competitors such as Paris, Moscow, Madrid and New York (wheeler, 2012). As a result, London gained its right to be chosen as the host city for XXX Olympiad 2012. 2.2 Characteristics

2.2.1 Form
In every event, there is a beginning and an end to it. Form is the primary concern for event’s planners and designers; as it has the ability to formed professionalism and has resulted in many successful businesses (Getz, 2012). Every type of event has its own element of style and culture. What makes it unique depends on the nature of the event. For instance, London Olympics evolve around the matters of athletic competitions and conferences for the sport committees. The Olympic Games are strictly obeyed by specific rules for the games that must be respected (Savic, 2007). 2.2.2 Theme and Design

A theme comes in the form of an idea that combines the meaning to the event (Getz, 2012). The London Olympics vision is to strive to provide athletes with an environment of friendship, excellence and enjoyment (The Gregorian House, 2012). The whole idea of the London’s Olympics is to establish a world-class design. The use of world-class facilities, Olympic Park and other famous historical locations are seen, such as World Heritage sites of Greenwich, the Palace of Westminster and the Tower of London; Wembley Stadium; Lord’s Cricket Ground; Wimbledon; Horse Guards Parade; the Royal Parks and Eton Dorney (The Gregorian House, 2012). 3. Event Experiences

3.1 Target Market
Target market refers to the audiences of the events, even the sponsors and attendees. Olympic tourism tends to derive from the global audiences who tuned in to watch and the spectators who bought the tickets to watch live respectively (Kaplanidou, 2009). These people constitutes to the sport tourist markets with a common interests and cultural background. However, sport tourists who travel to London to attend the event can differ on their impression on the destination itself based on their prospections, political views and ethnical differences (Kaplanidou, 2009). 3.2 Stakeholders

In the London Olympics, there...

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II. Collins, A., Jones, C., & Munday, M. (2009).Assessing the environmental impacts of mega sporting events: Two options?. Tourism Management, 30, 828-837.
III. David, L. (2009). Events and Tourism: An Environmental Approach and Impact Assessment. Journal of Tourism Challenges and Trends, 2(2), 101-114.
IV. Getz, D. (2012). Event Studies- Theory, Research and Policy for planned Events, 2nd Edition. New York, Canada: Routledge.
V. Hall, C. (2012). Sustainable Mega-events: Beyond the myth of balanced approaches to Mega-event sustainability. Event Management, 16, 119-131.
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VIII. Kirkup, N., & Major, B. (2006). Doctoral Foundation Paper: The Reliability of Economic Impact Studies of the Olympic Games: A Post-Games Study of Sydney 2000 and Considerations for London 2012. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 11(3), 275-296.
IX. Konstantaki, M., & Wickens, E. (2010). Residents’ Perceptions of Environmental and Security Issues at the 2012 London Olympic Games. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 15(4), 337-357.
X. Mules, T., & Faulkner, B. (1996). A Economic perspective on special events. Tourism Economics, 2(2), 107-117.
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XII
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2004 Olympic Games: Implications for Sport Events
XVI. The Gregorian House. (2012). London Olympics 2012. Retrieved from http://www.georgianhousehotel.co.uk/london-events/london-olympics-2012.asp
XVII
Source: Li,S., & Blakes,A. (2009). Estimating Olympic-related Investment and Expenditure. International Journal of Tourism Research,11, 337-356.
Source: Kasimati, E. (2003). Economic Aspects and the Summer Olympics: a Review of Related Research. International Journal of Tourism Research, 5, 433-444.
Source: David, L. (2009). Events and Tourism: An Environmental Approach and Impact Assessment. Journal of Tourism Challenges and Trends, 2(2), 101-114.
Source: Collins, A., Jones, C., & Munday, M. (2009). Assessing the environmental impacts of mega sporting events: Two options?. Tourism Management, 30, 828-837.
Source: Hall, C. (2012). Sustainable Mega-events: Beyond the myth of balanced approaches to Mega-event sustainability. Event Management, 16, 119-131.
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