‘You don’t live when you are unemployed—you exist’ (Jackson & Crooks 1993). Impact of unemployment and Cultural Norms on environment and development
“Think Globally, Act Locally”
The concept of “environment” has evolved since it started to become a global issue in the early 1970s. At first, it was a kind of global recognition that the Earth‟s ecosystems are in fact fragile, and that human beings have been contributing much to its de generation. When countries started to join efforts to strike a balance between improving the quality of human life and protecting the environment for the sake of future generations, a new awareness materialized. The social and economic welfare of human beings is closely linked to their environment. Any change in the socioeconomic fields will have an impact on the earth‟s environment and vice versa, whether positively or negatively, immediately or eventually. And in many cases, negative results are irreversible. The Earth Summit held in Rio in 1992 concluded that the economic, social and environmental concerns are inescapably interlinked to world development .Hence it pledged to eradicate environmental problems, reduce poverty and foster: Sustainable development through integrated efforts and global cooperation. Culture
What is Culture?
The importance of culture towards disasters was particularly highlighted during the Indian Ocean tsunami. When the tsunami hit the coast lines of the South Asian Countries in the year 2004, some communities with indigenous knowledge regarding tsunami were successfully survived where as migrants and tourists who did not had local knowledge were hugely affected (Arunotai, 2008). Survival of some indigenous communities as oppose to migrants and tourists were mainly based on the presence of “cultural” knowledge different people had on the tsunami. People view culture in different ways and some argue that it is complex and difficult to define. For some, culture is simply the way of life that expresses certain meanings and values of people (Williams, 1961). Baligh (1994) extends Williams’s (1961) definition and sees culture as the ultimate way of doing things or a way of finding ways of doing things. Anthropologists view world as a “cultural mosaic” of traditional culture and inherited values (Nanda and warms, 2007). The famous anthropologist Edward Taylor claims that culture as the “complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, moral, law, custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society” (Taylor, 1924). Similarly, Swidler (1986) sees culture as a tool kit comprising of symbols, stories, rituals, and world views which people may used in different situations. These elements within culture are passed down from one generation to another and provide guidance for individuals to survive in the society (hall et al., 2003). 3.
Some of the definitions for culture encompass a “group element”. Schein (2004) defines culture as ‘a pattern of shared basic assumptions (beliefs) that was learned by a group as it solved its problems of external adoption and internal integration, that has worked well enough to be considered valid”. Since cultural aspects are considered valid and help groups for their survival, it is taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think, and feel in relating to those problems (Schein, 2004). Similarly Rapoport (1987) sees culture is “about a group of people who have a set of values and beliefs which embody ideas, and are transmitted to members of the group through enculturation”. Haviland (1993) describes culture as the common denominator that makes the actions of individuals attached to a group or not. Due to this strong link between “culture” and “group” they cannot exist without the other. 4.
Components of Culture.
Culture can be divided into two components as material and nonmaterial. Material culture consists of...
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