The Second Great Awakening laid the foundations of the development of present-day religious beliefs and establishments, moral views, and democratic ideals in the United States. Beginning back in late eighteenth century and lasting until the middle of the nineteenth century,1 this Protestant awakening sought to reach out the un-churched and bring people to a much more personal and vivid experience of Christianity. Starting on the Southern frontier and soon spreading to the Northeast, the Second Great Awakening has also been associated as a response against the growing liberalism in religion - skepticism, deism, and rational Christianity.2 Although the movement is well-known to be just a period of religious revival, its tremendous effects still influence the nation even up to now. The lasting impacts of the revolution include the shift of the dominating Christian theology from predestination to salvation for all, the emergence and growth of religious factions, the escalation of involvement in secular affairs, and the shaping of the country into a more egalitarian society. These footprints left by the Second Great Awakening helped mold America into what it is today.
Contrary to the popular belief of predestination during the First Great Awakening, the Second Great Awakening emphasized salvation for all, which eventually replaced the former as the dominating Christian theology in America even up to now.3 During the American Revolution, the largest church denominations were the Quakers, the Congregationalists, and the Anglicans. These earlier denominations believed in a Calvinist theology called predestination. In basic terms, predestination exemplifies that God already predetermined from the beginning of time those who are saved from hell and those who are not. However, this doctrine did not match the Revolutionary spirit of national and personal accomplishment. Thus, when the Second Great Awakening extended