“Impact of Entrepreneurship Development & Urbanization on Economic Development” Shilpa loomba & Dr. S.K.Sindhi
The paper reveals the interlinked effects of entrepreneurship & urbanization on economic development. Urbanization is increasing day by day due to increase in Entrepreneurship in developed areas. This is ultimately affecting per capita income, employment level & growth of population in urban areas. Up to some extent it is beneficial for the economy as entrepreneurship & urbanization enhancing employment, per capita income & economic growth in major sectors.
Key words: -
Economic Development, Urbanization, Entrepreneurship, Employment, per capita income
To study the interlinked relation between entrepreneurship & urbanization. 2.
To study the economic effects of entrepreneurship & urbanization on economy. 3.
To determine the role of entrepreneur in employment generation.
It is an empirical study under which the data has been collected from various secondary sources such as census reports, world fact book, journals & publications.
Urbanization refers to a process in which an increasing proportion of an entire population lives in cities and the suburbs of cities. Historically, it has been closely connected with industrialization. When more and more inanimate sources of energy were used to enhance human productivity (industrialization), surpluses increased in both agriculture and industry. Larger and larger proportions of a population could live in cities. Economic forces were such that cities became the ideal places to locate factories and their workers. The United Nations estimates indicate that at mid 1990s, about 43 per cent of the world population lived in urban areas. With the urban population growing two and half times faster than its rural counterpart, the level of urbanization is projected to cross the 50 per cent mark in 2005. United Nations projections further show that by 2025, more than three- fifth of the world population will live in urban areas (U. N. 1993).
The definition of urban had changed from time to time.
The recent census of India defined the urban places on the basis of the following criteria:- i) All places with a municipality, corporation, cantonment board or notified town area committee etc. ii) All other places which satisfy the following criteria:
a) Minimum population of 5000
b) At least 75 % of male working population engaged in non-agricultural pursuits and c) A density of population of at least 400 persons per square Km. Besides, the directors of census operations in states/ union territories were allowed to include in consultation with the concerned with state governments, union territory administration and the census commissioner of India, some places having distinct urban characteristics as urban even if such places did not strictly satisfy all the criteria mentioned under the category ( b ) above ( Census of India 1991 ).
Although, the definition of urban areas of 1961 census continued in later censuses, but it has been slightly modified in constituents of non-agricultural activities since 1981 census. According to 1981 census, 75 per cent of male workers in non-agricultural activities is required for a settlement to be declared as urban. In addition to it, at a town level the change in boundary has been frequent, and in several cases adjustment for it is impossible due to lack of relevant information. The sources of urban growth comprise natural increase in urban areas, migration, reclassification of rural areas into urban areas and the change in the boundaries of existing towns. The migration data and the information on reclassification of rural areas into urban areas are available from the census. But the information on emigration is not available in the country, although its effect is likely to be negligible. The data on natural increase are available from Sample Registration...
Lal K. Anil & Clement W. Ronald, 2005. “ Economic Development in India : the role of individual Enterprise ( and Entrepreneurial spirit),” asia-pacific development journal, Vol. 12, No. 2, December 2005
Census of India ( 1991 ) “ Emerging Trends of Urbanization in India “, Occasional paper No. 1 of 1993, Registrar General, New Delhi.
Bhagat B.R,” Urbanization in India: Demographic Reappraisal”
Various census reports
The revision of world urbanization prospects-2009
Gupta, Rajat, 2001. “Creating Indian entrepreneurs,” India Today, February 12.
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