The Immune System: Immune System Overview
Name the two major functions of the immune system:
• __ To destroy disease-causing organisms_____________
• _______ To detect and kill abnormal cells such as cancerous cells________________ 2.
Pathogens are classified according to their size and where they are located in the body. List the five types of pathogens from largest to smallest: • _____ Parasitic worms_____
Which type of pathogen is always intracellular? ______Viruses__________
Which type of pathogen is always extracellular? _______Parasitic worms_________ 4–5.
Name the three main lines of defense and give an example of each: Line of defense
When the surface barriers (innate external defenses) are penetrated, what is the next line of defense? ___ Innate internal defenses 7.
This defense mechanism (named in question 6) identifies enemies by recognizing ____markers_____ unique to the pathogens. When they are overwhelmed, they secrete ______chemical messengers____ to mobilize the adaptive defenses. 8.
Name the four key ways adaptive defenses differ from innate defenses: • ______are specific________________
• ___involve B and T lymphocytes_________
• __have memory_____________
• __are systemic______________
B and T lymphocytes recognize pathogens by binding to them. What the lymphocyte recognizes is called the _____antigenic deteminant_____________ found on the antigen. 10.
Specific B cells called ___plasma______ cells secrete __antibodies____________, which bind to the antigens.
Humoral Versus Cellular Immunity
____Humoral________ immunity is directed against pathogens in the extracellular fluid. This immunity involves __B_ lymphocytes. 12.
________Cellular____ immunity is directed against pathogens within the cells. This immunity involves __T_ lymphocytes. 13.
Which type of immunity involves antibodies? _____Humoral__________ 14.
Name three circumstances in which the T cells would be activated against body cells: • __cell becomes cancerous_________
• _____cell is invaded by a virus__________
• _____cell has been transported from another individual___________________ The Immune System: Anatomy Review
Name the two major anatomical parts of the immune system: • _specialized immune cells _____________
• ___lymphoid organs and tissues_______________________
Cells of the immune system originate in ___bone marrow________. These cells are called ___leukocytes___________ when traveling in the blood and are classified according to the shape of their nucleus and colors of their granules when stained. 3–4.
List the leukocytes in order of frequency from most to least common. In the second column put their distinct characteristics.
Name of Leukocyte
multi-lobed nucleus with pale-staining granules
small leukocyte, round nucleus, no prominent granules
large leukocyte, U-shaped or kidney (S) shaped nucleus, no prominent granules
bilobed nucleus with granules and stains red
large granules hide lobed nucleus and stains blue/purple
Specialized immune cells: Leukocytes are normally found in the blood, while non-leukocytes are found in tissue. Fill in the cells classified under the following headings and note if they are found in blood or tissue. • Phagocytes: __ neutrophils (blood) and macrophages (tissue) • Antigen-presenting cells: _____ dendritic cells (tissue), macrophages (tissue), and B cells (blood) • Effector cells of adaptive immunity: _B and T cells(blood)________________ • Other: _Mast Cells____________
Primary lymphoid organs, where B and T cells originate and mature, are the bone marrow and thymus. Fill in the following: Both B and T cells originate from ___bone marrow______.
The B cells mature in the __bone...
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