Topics: Kidney, Urinary bladder, Urine Pages: 1 (661 words) Published: October 28, 2014

Chandra SmayImmobility Paper
Breckinridge School of Nursing
The system I chose regarding immobility was the urinary system. In an immobile patient there are four main hazards with the urinary system: calculi, retention, incontinence and infection. Immobility also predisposes the patient to renal calculi, or kidney stones. Calcium is released from bone demineralization, due to this and urinary stasis or immobility, the precipitation of calcium occurs forming calculi or stones. Renal calculi are also a consequence of urinary retention and incontinence resulting from decreased bladder muscle tone; the formation of alkaline urine, which facilitates growth of urinary bacteria; and decreased urine volume. Signs and symptoms are pain, dysuria and hematuria. You can help prevent this problem in a immobile patient by ensuring adequate fluid intake of 3000 mls each day. As far as retention, the concentration of calcium in the urine decreases the sensitivity of the bladder which can lead to retention of urine, a situation which can be exacerbated by an inappropriate position in bed when passing urine. Signs and symptoms of urinary retention are pain or discomfort and a distended abdomen (palpable bladder). Prevention includes ensuring fluid intake of 2,000 - 3,000 mls of fluid each day, allowing the patient up to toilet or commode if at all possible, to help micturition by the aid of gravity, ensuring privacy, recording fluid balance to assess if bladder is emptied completely and only catheterize as a last resort. Abstract

I reviewed several articles on the effects on immobility on different body systems. I chose to expand on the urinary system and found two other journal articles that elaborated on this topic. I found the four main problems on immobility in regards to the urinary system, what they cause and how to prevent them. The article talked about how urinary calculi and urinary retention can occur. These may also lead to incontinence by the...
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