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Inner and Eastern Asia, 4001200 seq NL1 r 0 h INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter students should seq NL1 1 seq NL_a r 0 h . Understand the role of Buddhism and its relationship to the Tang state and the reasons for and results of the backlash against Buddhism in the late Tang and Song periods. seq NL1 2 seq NL_a r 0 h . Be able to discuss the history and the significance of the relationships between China and its neighbors, including Central Asia, Korea, Japan, and Vietnam. seq NL1 3 seq NL_a r 0 h . Be able to carry out a simple comparative analysis of the different roles of Buddhism in China, Tibet, Korea, and Japan. seq NL1 4 seq NL_a r 0 h . Understand the nature and significance of technological innovation in the Song Empire. SEQ NLI r 0 h seq NL1 r 0 h CHAPTER OUTLINE seq NLI ROMAN I seq NLA r 0 h . The Sui and Tang Empires, 581755 seq NLA ALPHABETIC A seq NL1 r 0 h . Reunification Under the Sui and Tang seq NL1 1 seq NL_a r 0 h . The Sui Empire reunified China and established a government based on Confucianism but heavily influenced by Buddhism. The Suis rapid decline and fall may have been due to its having spent large amounts of resources on a number of ambitious construction, canal, irrigation, and military projects. seq NL1 2 seq NL_a r 0 h . The Tang Empire was established in 618. The Tang state carried out a program of territorial expansion, avoided over-centralization, and combined Turkic influence with Chinese Confucian traditions. seq NLA ALPHABETIC B seq NL1 r 0 h . Buddhism and the Tang Empire seq NL1 1 seq NL_a r 0 h . The Tang emperors legitimized their control by using the Buddhist idea that kings are spiritual agents who bring their subjects into a Buddhist realm. Buddhist monasteries were important allies of the early Tang emperors in return for their assistance, they received tax exemptions, land, and gifts. seq NL1 2 seq NL_a r 0 h . Mahayana Buddhism was the most important school of Buddhism in Central Asia and East Asia. Mahayana beliefs were flexible, encouraged the adaptation of local deities into a Mahayana pantheon, and encouraged the translation of Buddhist texts into local languages. seq NL1 3 seq NL_a r 0 h . Buddhism spread through Central and East Asia, following the trade routes that converged on the Tang capital, Changan. These trade routes also brought other peoples and cultural influences to Changan, making it a cosmopolitan city. seq NLA ALPHABETIC C seq NL1 r 0 h . To Changan by Land and Sea seq NL1 1 seq NL_a r 0 h . Changan was the destination of ambassadors from other states sent to China under the tributary system. The city of Changan itself had over a million residents, most of them living outside the city walls. seq NL1 2 seq NL_a r 0 h . Foreigners in Changan lived in special compounds, urban residents in walled, gated residential quarters. Roads and canals, including the Grand Canal, brought people and goods to the city. With Chinese control over South China firmly established, Islamic and Jewish merchants from Western Asia came to China via the Indian Ocean trade routes. seq NL1 3 seq NL_a r 0 h . Large Chinese commercial ships plied the sea routes to Southeast Asia, carrying large amounts of goods. Bubonic plague was also brought from West Asia to China along the sea routes. seq NLA ALPHABETIC D seq NL1 r 0 h . Trade and Cultural Exchange seq NL1 1 seq NL_a r 0 h . Tang China combined Central Asian influences with Chinese culture, bringing polo, grape wine, tea, and spices. In trade, China lost its monopoly on silk, but began to produce its own cotton, tea, and sugar. seq NL1 2 seq NL_a r 0 h . Tang roads, river transport, and canals facilitated a tremendous growth in trade. Tang China exported far more than it imported, with high quality silks and porcelain being among its most desired products. seq NLI ROMAN II seq NLA r 0 h . Rivals for Power in Inner Asia and China, 600907 seq NLA ALPHABETIC A seq NL1 r 0 h . The Uigur and Tibetan Empires seq NL1 1 seq NL_a r 0 h . In the mid-eighth century, a Turkic group, the Uigurs, built an empire in Central Asia. The Uigurs were known as merchants and scribes, had strong ties to both Islam and China, and developed their own script. The Uigur Empire lasted for about fifty years. seq NL1 2 seq NL_a r 0 h . Tibet was a large empire with access to Southeast Asia, China, South and Central Asia. Tibet was thus open to Indian, Chinese, Islamic, and even (via Iran) Greek culture. seq NL1 3 seq NL_a r 0 h . In the early Tang, relations between China and Tibet were friendly. The Tibetan king received a Chinese princess and Mahayana Buddhism was brought to Tibet and combined with the local religion. But by the late 600s, friendly relations had given way to military rivalry in which Tibet allied with the southwestern kingdom of Nanchao against the Tang. seq NL1 4 seq NL_a r 0 h . In the ninth century, a Tibetan king attempted to eliminate Buddhism, but failed. Tibet then entered a long period of monastic rule and isolation. seq NLA ALPHABETIC B seq NL1 r 0 h . Upheavals and Repression, 750879 seq NL1 1 seq NL_a r 0 h . In the late ninth century the Tang Empire broke the power of the Buddhist monasteries and Confucian ideology was reasserted. The reason for the crackdown was that Buddhism was seen as undermining the family system and eroding the tax base by accumulating tax-free land and attracting hundreds of thousands of people to become monks and nuns. seq NL1 2 seq NL_a r 0 h . Buddhism also had been used to legitimize womens participation in politics. The most significant example of this is the career of Wu Zhao, who took control of the government and made herself emperor with the ideological and material support of Buddhism. seq NL1 3 seq NL_a r 0 h . When Buddhism was repressed, Confucian scholars concocted accounts that painted highly critical portraits of Wu Zhao and other influential women in Chinese history. The crackdown on Buddhism also brought the destruction of many Buddhist cultural artifacts. seq NLA ALPHABETIC C seq NL1 r 0 h . The End of the Tang Empire, 879907 seq NL1 1 seq NL_a r 0 h . As its territory expanded and as it was faced with internal rebellions, the Tang dynasty relied on powerful provincial military governors to maintain peace. In 907, the Tang state ended and regional military governors established their own kingdoms. seq NL1 2 seq NL_a r 0 h . None of these smaller kingdoms was able to integrate territory on the scale of the Tang. As a result, East Asia was cut off from communication with the Islamic world and Europe. seq NLI ROMAN III seq NLA r 0 h . The Emergence of East Asia, to 1200 seq NLA ALPHABETIC A seq NL1 r 0 h . The Liao and Jin Challenge seq NL1 1 seq NL_a r 0 h . After the fall of the Tang a number of new states emerged in the former Tang territory the Liao, the Jin, and the Chinese Song. As the Liao and Jin cut the Chinese off from Central Asia, the Song developed seafaring and strengthened contacts with Korea, Japan, and Southeast Asia. seq NL1 2 seq NL_a r 0 h . The Liao state included nomads and settled agriculturalists. The Liao kings presented themselves to their various subjects as Confucian rulers, Buddhist monarchs, and nomadic leaders. The Liao rulers were of the Kitan ethnic group. seq NL1 3 seq NL_a r 0 h . The Liao Empire lasted from 9161121. The Liao had a strong military and forced the Song to give them annual payments of cash and silk in return for peace. seq NL1 4 seq NL_a r 0 h . In order to rid themselves of the Liao, the Song helped the Jurchens of northeast Asia to defeat the Liao. The Jurchens established their own Jin Empire, turned on the Song, and drove them out of north and central China in 1127. The Song continued to reign in south China as the Southern Song Empire (11271279). seq NLA ALPHABETIC B seq NL1 r 0 h . Song Industries seq NL1 1 seq NL_a r 0 h . During the Song period the Chinese made a number of technological innovations, many of them based on information that had been brought to China from West Asia during the cosmopolitan Tang era. Many of these innovations had to do with mathematics, astronomy, and calendar making. seq NL1 2 seq NL_a r 0 h . In 1088 the engineer Su Song constructed a huge, chain-driven mechanical clock that told the time, the day of the month, and indicated the movements of the moon and certain stars and planets. Song inventors also improved the previously invented compass, making it suitable for seafaring. seq NL1 3 seq NL_a r 0 h . In shipbuilding, the Song introduced the sternpost rudder and watertight bulkheads. These innovations were later adopted in the Persian Gulf. seq NL1 4 seq NL_a r 0 h . The Song also had a standing professionally trained, regularly paid military. Iron and coal were important strategic resources for the Song military. The Song produced large amounts of high-grade iron and steel for weapons, armor, and defensive works. The Song also developed and used gunpowder weapons in their wars. seq NLA ALPHABETIC C seq NL1 r 0 h . Economy and Society in Song China seq NL1 1 seq NL_a r 0 h . Song society was dominated by civilian officials and put higher value on civil pursuits than on military affairs. Song thinkers developed a sophisticated Neo-Confucian philosophy, while certain Buddhist sects, particularly Chan (Zen) continued to be popular. seq NL1 2 seq NL_a r 0 h . The civil service examination system, introduced in the Tang, reached its mature form in the Song. The examination broke the domination of the hereditary aristocracy by allowing men to be chosen for government service on the basis of merit. However, men from poor families were unlikely to be able to devote the necessary time and resources to studying for the rigorous examinations. seq NL1 3 seq NL_a r 0 h . With the invention of moveable type, the Song government was able to mass-produce authorized preparation texts for examination-takers. Printing also contributed to the dissemination of new agricultural technology and thus helped to increase agricultural production and spur population growth in South China. seq NL1 4 seq NL_a r 0 h . During the Song period Chinas population rose to 100 million. Population growth and economic growth fed the rise of large, crowded, but very well-managed cities like Hangzhou. seq NL1 5 seq NL_a r 0 h . The Song period saw the wide use of an interregional credit system called flying money and the introduction of government-issued paper money. The paper money caused inflation and was later withdrawn. seq NL1 6 seq NL_a r 0 h . The Song government was not able to control the market economy as closely as previous governments had done. Certain government functions, including tax collection, were privatized, and a new merchant elite thrived in the cities, their wealth derived from trade rather than land. seq NL1 7 seq NL_a r 0 h . Womens status declined during the Song period. Women were entirely subordinated to men and lost their rights to own and manage property remarriage was forbidden. Painfully bound feet became a mandatory status symbol for elite women. Working class women and women from non-Han peoples of southern China did not bind their feet and had more independence than elite Han Chinese women did. seq NLI ROMAN IV seq NLA r 0 h . New Kingdoms in East Asia seq NLA ALPHABETIC A seq NL1 r 0 h . Chinese Influences seq NL1 1 seq NL_a r 0 h . Korea, Japan, and Vietnam were all rice-cultivating economies whose labor needs fit well with Confucian concepts of hierarchy, obedience, and discipline. While they all adapted aspects of Chinese culture, the political ideologies of the three countries remained different. None of them used the Chinese civil service examination system, although they did value literacy in Chinese and read the Chinese classics. seq NLA ALPHABETIC B seq NL1 r 0 h . Korea seq NL1 1 seq NL_a r 0 h . The Korean hereditary elite absorbed Confucianism and Buddhism from China and passed them along to Japan. The several small Korean kingdoms were united first by Silla in 668, and then by Koryo in the early 900s. Korea used woodblock printing as early as the 700s, and later invented moveable type, which it passed on to Song China. seq NLA ALPHABETIC C seq NL1 r 0 h . Japan seq NL1 1 seq NL_a r 0 h . Japans mountainous terrain was home to hundreds of small states that were unified, perhaps by horse-riding warriors from Korea, in the fourth or fifth century. The unified state established its government at Yamato on Honshu Island. seq NL1 2 seq NL_a r 0 h . In the mid-seventh century, the rulers of Japan implemented a series of political reforms to establish a centralized government, legal code, national histories, architecture and city planning based on the model of Tang China. However, the Japanese did not copy the Chinese model uncritically they adopted it to the needs of Japan and maintained their own concept of emperorship. The native religion of Shinto survived alongside the imported Buddhist religion. seq NL1 3 seq NL_a r 0 h . During the Heian period (7941185), the Fujiwara clan dominated the Japanese government. The Heian period is known for the aesthetic refinement of its aristocracy and for the elevation of civil officials above warriors. seq NL1 4 seq NL_a r 0 h . By the late 1000s, some warrior clans had become wealthy and powerful. After years of fighting, one warrior clan took control of Japan and established the Kamakura Shogunate with its capital at Kamakura in eastern Honshu. seq NLA ALPHABETIC D seq NL1 r 0 h . Vietnam seq NL1 1 seq NL_a r 0 h . Geographical proximity and a similar irrigated wet-rice agriculture made Vietnam suitable for integration with southern China. Economic and cultural assimilation took place during Tang and Song times, when the elite of Annam (northern Vietnam) modeled their high culture on that of the Chinese. When the Tang Empire fell, Annam established itself as an independent state under the name Dai Viet. seq NL1 2 seq NL_a r 0 h . In southern Vietnam, the kingdom of Champa was influenced by Malay and Indian as well as by Chinese culture. During the Song period, when Dai Viet was established, Champa cultivated a relationship with the Song state and exported the fast-maturing Champa rice to China. seq NL1 3 seq NL_a r 0 h . East Asian countries shared a common Confucian interest in hierarchy, but the status of women varied from country to country. Foot-binding was not common outside of China. Before Confucianism was introduced to Annam, women there had a higher status than women in Confucian China. Nowhere, however, was the education of women considered valuable or even desirable. seq NL1 r 0 h DISCUSSION QUESTIONS seq NL1 1 seq NL_a r 0 h . What roles did geography and the environment play in the development of states in and around China during this period seq NL1 2 seq NL_a r 0 h . How and why did the roles and status of women vary over time and space in East Asia seq NL1 3 seq NL_a r 0 h . How and why does the culture of Song China differ from the Chinese culture of the Tang period What elements of continuity or shared characteristics are there that justify us in calling the cultures of both Tang and Song variants of a single Chinese culture seq NL1 4 seq NL_a r 0 h . Why do some historians call the Song modern What does this indicate about their definition of the word modern seq NL1 5 seq NL_a r 0 h . Compare the relations between China and its Central Asian neighbors (Tibet, Uigur Empire, Liao Empire, and Jin Empire) on the one hand and its East Asian neighbors on the other (Japan, Korea, Vietnam). How do the relationships differ, and why seq NL1 6 seq NL_a r 0 h . Is there a relationship between the environment in which a civilization develops and its ability to develop and project military power seq NL1 r 0 h LECTURE TOPICS seq NL1 1 seq NL_a r 0 h . The Political and Economic Roles of Buddhism in Tang China Sources SEQ NL_a alphabetic a SEQ NL_1_ r 0 h . Gernet, Jacques. Buddhism in Chinese Society An Economic History from the Fifth to the Tenth Centuries. New York Columbia University Press, 1995. SEQ NL_a alphabetic b SEQ NL_1_ r 0 h . Weinstein, Stanley. Buddhism Under the Tang. Cambridge Cambridge University Press, 1987. SEQ NL_a alphabetic c SEQ NL_1_ r 0 h . Wright, Arthur F. Buddhism In Chinese History. Stanford Stanford University Press, 1959. seq NL1 2 seq NL_a r 0 h . Tang China and the World Sources SEQ NL_a alphabetic a SEQ NL_1_ r 0 h . Adshead, S.A.M. China in World History. New York St. Martins Press, 1988. SEQ NL_a alphabetic b SEQ NL_1_ r 0 h . Schaefer, Edward. The Golden Peaches of Samarkand. Berkeley University of California Press, 1981. seq NL1 3 seq NL_a r 0 h . The Song Technological Revolution Sources SEQ NL_a alphabetic a SEQ NL_1_ r 0 h . Elvin, Mark. The Pattern of the Chinese Past. Stanford Stanford University Press, 1973. SEQ NL_a alphabetic b SEQ NL_1_ r 0 h . Hartwell, Robert. Markets, technology, and the Structure of Enterprise in the Development of the Eleventh-Century Chinese Iron and Steel Industry. Journal of Economic History 26 (1966). SEQ NL_a alphabetic c SEQ NL_1_ r 0 h . Needham, Joseph. Science in Traditional China A Comparative Perspective. Cambridge, Mass. Harvard University Press, 1981. seq NL1 4 seq NL_a r 0 h . Merchants and Money in China Sources SEQ NL_a alphabetic a SEQ NL_1_ r 0 h . The Enlightened Judgments. Translated by Brian McKnight and James T.C. Liu. Albany State University of New York Press, 1999. SEQ NL_a alphabetic b SEQ NL_1_ r 0 h . Shiba, Yoshinobu. Commerce and Society in Sung China. Ann Arbor University of Michigan, Center for Chinese Studies, 1970. SEQ NL_a alphabetic c SEQ NL_1_ r 0 h . Twitchett, Denis. Merchant, Trade, and Government in Late Tang. Asia Major 141 (1968). SEQ NL_a alphabetic d SEQ NL_1_ r 0 h . Yang, Lien-cheng. Money and Credit in China A Short History. Cambridge Harvard University Press, 1952. seq NL1 5 seq NL_a r 0 h . Seafaring and the Ocean-Going Trade in Song China Sources SEQ NL_a alphabetic a SEQ NL_1_ r 0 h . Abu-Lughod, Janet. Before European Hegemony The World System A.D. 12501350. Oxford Oxford University Press, 1989. SEQ NL_a alphabetic b SEQ NL_1_ r 0 h . Ju-Kua, Chau. Chau Ju-Kua His Work on the Chinese and Arab Trade in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries, Entitled Chu-Fan-Ch. Amsterdam Oriental Press, 1966. SEQ NL_a alphabetic c SEQ NL_1_ r 0 h . Needham, Joseph. Science and Civilization in China. Vol. IV Part III, Civil Engineering and Nautics. Cambridge Cambridge University Press, 1971. seq NL1 r 0 h PAPER TOPICS seq NL1 1 seq NL_a r 0 h . Compare the role of Buddhism in Tang China with the role of Christianity in medieval Europe. seq NL1 2 seq NL_a r 0 h . Would you agree or disagree with the argument that Tibet became a part of China during the Tang period seq NL1 3 seq NL_a r 0 h . Research the development of one area of technology or science (including mathematics) in East Asia during the period 4001200. seq NL1 4 seq NL_a r 0 h . What role did Arabs play in the history of East and Central Asia during the period 4001200 seq NL1 r 0 h INTERNET RESOURCES The following Internet sites contain written and visual material appropriate for use with this chapter. A more extensive and continually updated list of Internet resources can be found on The Earth and Its Peoples web site. Refer to the The Earth and Its Peoples Web Site section located at the beginning of this manual for information on how to locate the text homepage. Chinese Painting and Calligraphy (University of Hong Kong) HYPERLINK http//www.hku.hk/hkumag/chinese_p.html http//www.hku.hk/hkumag/chinese_p.html East Asian History Sourcebook (P. Halsall, Fordham University) HYPERLINK http//www.fordham.edu/halsall/eastasia/eastasiasbook.html http//www.fordham.edu/halsall/eastasia/eastasiasbook.html History of Buddhism HYPERLINK http//www.ship.edu/cgboeree/buddhahist.html http//www.ship.edu/cgboeree/buddhahist.html PAGE 76 Chapter 10 DOCPROPERTY ChapterTitle MERGEFORMAT Inner and Eastern Asia, 4001200 Chapter DOCPROPERTY ChapterNumber 11 DOCPROPERTY ChapterTitle MERGEFORMAT Inner and Eastern Asia, 4001200 PAGE 75 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. B Y, dXiJ(x( I_TS 1EZBmU/xYy5g/GMGeD3Vqq8K)fw9 xrxwrTZaGy8IjbRcXI u3KGnD1NIBs
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