Inner and Eastern Asia, 4001200 seq NL1 r 0 h INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter students should seq NL1 1 seq NL_a r 0 h .
Understand the role of Buddhism and its relationship to the Tang state and the reasons for and results of the backlash against Buddhism in the late Tang and Song periods. seq NL1 2 seq NL_a r 0 h .
Be able to discuss the history and the significance of the relationships between China and its neighbors, including Central Asia, Korea, Japan, and Vietnam. seq NL1 3 seq NL_a r 0 h .
Be able to carry out a simple comparative analysis of the different roles of Buddhism in China, Tibet, Korea, and Japan. seq NL1 4 seq NL_a r 0 h .
Understand the nature and significance of technological innovation in the Song Empire. SEQ NLI r 0 h seq NL1 r 0 h CHAPTER OUTLINE seq NLI ROMAN I seq NLA r 0 h .
The Sui and Tang Empires, 581755 seq NLA ALPHABETIC A seq NL1 r 0 h .
Reunification Under the Sui and Tang seq NL1 1 seq NL_a r 0 h .
The Sui Empire reunified China and established a government based on Confucianism but heavily influenced by Buddhism. The Suis rapid decline and fall may have been due to its having spent large amounts of resources on a number of ambitious construction, canal, irrigation, and military projects. seq NL1 2 seq NL_a r 0 h .
The Tang Empire was established in 618. The Tang state carried out a program of territorial expansion, avoided over-centralization, and combined Turkic influence with Chinese Confucian traditions. seq NLA ALPHABETIC B seq NL1 r 0 h .
Buddhism and the Tang Empire seq NL1 1 seq NL_a r 0 h .
The Tang emperors legitimized their control by using the Buddhist idea that kings are spiritual agents who bring their subjects into a Buddhist realm. Buddhist monasteries were important allies of the early Tang emperors in return for their assistance, they received tax exemptions, land, and gifts. seq NL1 2 seq NL_a r 0 h .
Mahayana Buddhism was the most important school of Buddhism in Central Asia and East Asia. Mahayana beliefs were flexible, encouraged the adaptation of local deities into a Mahayana pantheon, and encouraged the translation of Buddhist texts into local languages. seq NL1 3 seq NL_a r 0 h .
Buddhism spread through Central and East Asia, following the trade routes that converged on the Tang capital, Changan. These trade routes also brought other peoples and cultural influences to Changan, making it a cosmopolitan city. seq NLA ALPHABETIC C seq NL1 r 0 h .
To Changan by Land and Sea seq NL1 1 seq NL_a r 0 h .
Changan was the destination of ambassadors from other states sent to China under the tributary system. The city of Changan itself had over a million residents, most of them living outside the city walls. seq NL1 2 seq NL_a r 0 h .
Foreigners in Changan lived in special compounds, urban residents in walled, gated residential quarters. Roads and canals, including the Grand Canal, brought people and goods to the city. With Chinese control over South China firmly established, Islamic and Jewish merchants from Western Asia came to China via the Indian Ocean trade routes. seq NL1 3 seq NL_a r 0 h .
Large Chinese commercial ships plied the sea routes to Southeast Asia, carrying large amounts of goods. Bubonic plague was also brought from West Asia to China along the sea routes. seq NLA ALPHABETIC D seq NL1 r 0 h .
Trade and Cultural Exchange seq NL1 1 seq NL_a r 0 h .
Tang China combined Central Asian influences with Chinese culture, bringing polo, grape wine, tea, and spices. In trade, China lost its monopoly on silk, but began to produce its own cotton, tea, and sugar. seq NL1 2 seq NL_a r 0 h .
Tang roads, river transport, and canals facilitated a tremendous growth in trade. Tang China exported far more than it imported, with high quality silks and porcelain being among its most desired products. seq NLI ROMAN II seq NLA r 0 h .
Rivals for Power in Inner Asia and China, 600907 seq NLA ALPHABETIC A seq NL1 r 0 h .
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