immigration in lebanon

Topics: Human migration, Lebanon, Refugee Pages: 57 (10524 words) Published: December 28, 2013
Lebanon: A Country of Emigration and Immigration
Dr Paul Tabar

Paul Tabar is the director of the Institute for Migration Studies and Associate Professor of Sociology/Anthropology at the Lebanese American University. He is also Associate Researcher at the Centre for Cultural Research, University of Western Sydney. He is a co-author of Being Lebanese in Australia: Identity, Racism and the Ethnic Field (Institute for Migration Studies, LAU Press, Beirut, 2010). E-mail address: ptabar@lau.edu.lb

Migration Patterns: Lebanon
The first section of this paper aims to give a concise account of the patterns, history, and characteristics of Lebanese Migration from 1870 to the present day. Before describing the patterns of migration to and from Lebanon, it is critical to lay out the geographical boundaries of the area which constitutes this paper’s focus. Mount Lebanon refers to a primary source of early emigration that existed between 1870 and 1920. Present day Lebanon, which was founded in 1920 and became independent in 1943, is dealt with later in the paper.

Lebanese emigration started in Mount Lebanon, which included the major coastal cities of Jounieh and Byblos – but not Beirut. To the north, Mount Lebanon included neither Tripoli nor Akkar. The Beqaa Valley and South Lebanon (including Sidon and Tyre) were also excluded. Mount Lebanon became an autonomous administrative unit within the Ottoman Empire in 1860, and was governed by a Christian Ottoman Pasha appointed by the Supreme Port and selected from outside Mount Lebanon (now called the Mutasarrifiya). Waves of Lebanese Migration

This section discusses patterns and characteristics of Lebanese emigration from the Ottoman Empire until 2007.
Emigration from Lebanon: the first wave
Throughout modern history, Lebanon has experienced waves of emigration. For more than a century and a half Lebanon has sent inhabitants abroad to seek better fortunes. This is largely the result of a combination of lopsided economic development and undemocratic communal politics. In addition, Lebanon’s geographic location, in a region ridden with national and international conflicts, has contributed to emigration throughout history. The disintegration of the Muqata`aji system (a specific form of centralized feudalism) in Mount Lebanon between 1840 and 1860, and the increasing integration of the mountain economy into the expanding British and French capitalist market were two important factors that ushered in the emigration that continues today.

A small number of people emigrated from Mount Lebanon prior to the 1870s. They were mostly Christians who were sent by the Maronite Catholic Church to study in Rome in order to return and serve as the clergy. In addition, a small number of Christians emigrated to “Egypt and the main centres (sic) of trade between Europe and the Near East – Livorno, Marseille, Manchester” as a result of mercantile capitalist developments in Europe and religious links (Hourani, in Hourani and Shehadi, Eds. 1992: 5). These movements formed the first wave of emigration from Mount Lebanon.

Emigration from Lebanon: The Second Wave
A second wave of emigration came as a result of the emancipation of the peasants in 1860 and the integration of the local economy into the European capitalist market. This phase was characterized by major growth in the population. Most reliable figures place the annual rate of growth between 0.7 and 0.8 percent between 1840 and 1895 (Issawi, 1992: 22-23). Between 1783 and 1860, the population grew from 120,000 to about 200,000, and it was 280,000 two decades later. By 1913 the number was 414,800 (Khater, 2001:59).

2

This population increase was accompanied by “a growing number of educated men, and a smaller number of women, who looked for opportunity to use their newly acquired skills” (Tabar, 2009b: 3). The spread of Catholic and Protestant missionary schools increased education levels in Lebanon (Issawi, 1992: 4). What is remarkable...


Bibliography: Abi Farah, A. (2000). ‘Estimations of the number of Lebanese emigrants in 1999’, in AsSafir, p. 5, 20-11-2000.
`Akl, J. (2002). Al-Hijra al-Haditha min Lubnan (1860-2000), Beirut: Dar wa Maktabat alTurath al-Arabi (in Arabic).
Al Ariss, A. (2008). A Brief History of the Lebanese Migration: Contesting the Diaspora
Image
Amnesty International. (2007). “Palestinian Refugees Suffer in Lebanon,” 16 October 2007.
http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/feature-stories/palestinian-refugeessuffer-lebanon-20071017. Accessed February 7, 2011.
Antonios, Z. (ed.), (1995) State of the Nation: Report on People of non-English Speaking Background
Canberra: Federal Race Discrimination Commissioner.
Arabic Center for Information. (2008). “Lebanon and Migration,” Published by the Arab
Documentation Center and Assafir Newspaper
Barendse, J. et al. (2005). Study on improving the efficiency of workers ' remittances in Mediterranean
countries, Rotterdam
Batrouney, T. (1992). ‘The Lebanese in Australia, 1880-1989’ in Hourani, A. and Shehadi, N.
Batrouney, T. and Evert, H. (1994). Community Profiles, 1991 Census, Lebanon Born, Bureau of
Immigration and Population Research: Canberra
Betts, K. and Healy, E. (2006). ‘Lebanese Muslims in Australia and social disadvantage’ People
and Place, 14(1): 24-42
Birrel, R. and Khoo, S. (1994). The mobility of second generation Australians, paper presented at
the Australian Population Association Conference, Australian National University, 21-23
Boboc, C. Jennequin, H. Lavigne, A. Rabaud, I. and Unan, E. (2007). Migration as a WinWin Process in the Euro-Mediterranean Area: Remittances, and Intergenerational
Transfers between Countries with Different Demographic Cycles
Brah, A. (1996). Cartographies of diaspora: contesting identities. London : Routledge.
Castles, S., Kalantzis, M., Cope, B. and Morrissey, M. (1988). Mistaken Identity: Multiculturaliam
and the Demise of Nationalism in Australia
Census of the Commonwealth of Australia, Total Population by Birthplace of States and Territories
of the Commonwealth, 1891-1947.
Chalcraft, J. (2009). The Invisible Cage: Syrian Migrant Workers in Lebanon. California: Stanford
University Press.
Charara, R. (2009) 'A Brazilian delegation met with members of Parliament in the economic
committee and asked for a reduction in tariff ', in An-Nahar, March 6, , no
Couldrey, M and Morris, T. (2007). Iraq’s displacement crisis: the search for solutions, Forced
Migration Review, June , pp
Davis, Mike (1988). “Los Angeles: Civil Liberties between the Hammer and the Rock”, New
Left Review 170
De la Paz, Isagani, (2006). “Stranded Pinoys in Lebanon Still Traded, NGO Says,” 12
September , http://www.philippinestoday.net/index.php?module=article&view=119,
Accessed February 7, 2011.
Doraï, M.K., and Clochard, O. (2006). ‘Non-Palestinian Refugees in Lebanon: From Asylum
Seekers to Illegal Migrants’, in De Bel Air, F
Ensor, E. (2009). “Massive influx of expats can impact vote results” The Daily Star, June 6,:
3
Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA). (2006). International Migration
in the Arab Region
Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA) .(2007). International Migration
and Development in the Arab Region: Challenges and Opportunities
Faour, M. (1991). “The Demography of Lebanon: A reappraisal” Middle Eastern Studies 27(4):
631-641.
Ghobril, N. (2004). “Expatriates’ remittances and the Lebanese economy: brain drain or
economic gain?” Lecture presented at Lebanese Emigration Research Center, Notre
Hanafi, S. (2000). Palestinian Diaspora contribution to investment and philanthropy in Palestine.
Retrieved in August 23, 2009, from Palesta, Palestine Diaspora Contribution Website:
http://www.palesta.gov.ps/academc/publication/diaspora.htm
Harfoush, N. (1974). Al-Hudour al-Lubnani fi al-Alam (The Lebanese presence in the World).
Hertlein, S. and Vadean, F. (2006). “Remittances – A bridge between migration and
development?” Hamburg: Hamburg Institute of International Economics.
Hilal, L. and Samy, S. (2008). “Asylum and Migration in the Mashrek,” Country Fact Sheet
Lebanon, Euro-Mediterranean Human Rights Network, Copenhagen.
Hourani, A. (1992). ‘Introduction’, in Hourani, A. and Shehadi, N. (eds.) The Lebanese in the
World: A Century of Emigration
Hourani, Guita G. and Dabbous Eugene S. (2007). “Insecurity, Migration, and Return: The
Case of Lebanon following the Summer 2006 War,” Cooperation project on the social
Exploitation,” April 29, , http://www.hrw.org/en/news/2008/04/29/lebanon-protectdomestic-workers-abuse-exploitation. Accessed, February 7, 2011.
Information International. (2001). Facts about Lebanese Emigration (1991-2000), retrieved June
12,
http://www.migrationinformation.org/Feature/print.cfm?ID=377
IRIN, (2010)
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Immigration in Lebanon Essay
  • Immigration Essay
  • Essay on Immigration
  • Immigration Essay
  • Immigration Essay
  • Immigration Essay
  • Immigration Research Paper
  • immigration Essay

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free