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Topics: Alkane, Organic chemistry, Carbon Pages: 70 (3768 words) Published: February 23, 2014
FOUNDATION CHEMISTRY II
CHM096

CHAPTER 1
ORGANIC
CHEMISTRY
PART I

PREPARED BY
SYED ABDUL ILLAH ALYAHYA BIN SYED ABD KADIR
1

TOPICS
PART I
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5

Introduction to Hydrocarbon and
Functional Groups
Alkanes and Cycloalkanes
Isomerism and Overview of Organic
Reaction
Alkenes and Alkynes
Alkyl Halides

2

TOPIC
INTRODUCTION TO HYDROCARBON AND
FUNCTIONAL GROUPS

3

1.1 Introduction to Hydrocarbon and
Functional Groups
What is Organic Chemistry?
• Organic chemistry is a branch of chemistry that
focuses on compounds that contain carbon
– except CO, CO2, carbonates, and carbides

• Even though organic compounds only contain a few
elements, the unique ways carbon atoms can attach
together to form molecules leads to millions of
different organic compounds

4

1.1 Introduction to Hydrocarbon and
Functional Groups
What’s so Special About Carbon?
 Carbon atoms can do some unique things that other
atoms cannot
 Carbon can bond to as many as four other atoms
 Bonds to carbon are very strong and nonreactive
 Carbon atoms can attach together in long chains
 Carbon atoms can attach together to form rings
 Carbon atoms can form single, double, or triple bonds

5

1.1 Introduction to Hydrocarbon and
Functional Groups
What’s so Special About Carbon?
 Organic compounds tend to be molecular
 Mainly composed of just six nonmetallic elements
• C, H, O, N, S, and P

 Compounds found in all three states
• solids, liquids, and gases
• solids tend to have low melting points

 Solubility in water varies depending on which of the
other elements are attached to C and how many there
are
• CH3OH is miscible with water; C10H21OH is insoluble
6

1.1 Introduction to Hydrocarbon and
Functional Groups
Carbon Bonding
 Carbon forms four bonds
 When C has four single bonds,
the shape is tetrahedral
 When C has one triple + one
single or two double bonds, the
shape is linear
 When C has two single + one
double bond, the shape is
trigonal planar
7

1.1 Introduction to Hydrocarbon and
Functional Groups
Hydrocarbons
• Hydrocarbons contain only C and H
– aliphatic or aromatic

• Insoluble in water
– no polar bonds to attract water molecules

• Aliphatic hydrocarbons





saturated or unsaturated aliphatics
saturated = alkanes, unsaturated = alkenes or alkynes
may be chains (no rings or acyclic) or rings (cyclic e.g :cycloalkanes). chains may be straight or branched

• Aromatic hydrocarbons

8

1.1 Introduction to Hydrocarbon and
Functional Groups
Hydrocarbons

9

1.1 Introduction to Hydrocarbon and
Functional Groups
Functional Groups
 Functional group - collection of atoms at a site that
have a characteristic behavior in all molecules where
it occurs
 The group reacts in a typical way, generally
independent of the rest of the molecule

10

1.1 Introduction to Hydrocarbon and
Functional Groups
Organic Functional Groups
Class

Functional
Group

Example
CH3

Alkene

C C

H3C

CH2

Limonene

11

1.1 Introduction to Hydrocarbon and
Functional Groups
Organic Functional Groups
Class

Functional
Group

Example
OH C
CH3 C

Alkyne

H

C C

O

Norethindrone

12

1.1 Introduction to Hydrocarbon and
Functional Groups
Organic Functional Groups

Class

Functional
Group

Example
Cl

Alkyl Halide

R X

Cl

Cl

Cl

Cl

X = F, Cl, Br, I
Cl
1,2,3,4,5,6-Hexachlorocyclohexane
Lindane
13

1.1 Introduction to Hydrocarbon and
Functional Groups
Organic Functional Groups
Class

Alcohol

Functional
Group

Example
CH3

R OH
OH
H3C

CH3

2-Isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexanol
Menthol

14

1.1 Introduction to Hydrocarbon and
Functional Groups
Organic Functional Groups
Class

Functional
Group

Example
HO

(CH2)4CH3

H3C
Ether

R O R'

O
9

H3C CH3

 -Tetrahydrocannabinol

THC
15

1.1 Introduction to...
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