Production Technology of Rapeseed Mustard
Hafiz Wajid Ali
Dr. Sardar Alam Saab.
Assignment submitted as partial fulfillment of course AGR-201
Faculty of Agriculture
In Pakistan after cotton, rapeseed-mustard is the second most important source of oil in Pakistan. It is cultivated over an area of 307,000 hectares with annual production of 233,000 tonnes and contribute about 17% to the domestic production of edible oil. Rapeseed and mustard seed is a rich source of oil and protein. The seed has oil as high as 46-48 percent, Whole seed meal has 43.6 percent protein. Rapeseed meal is an excellent feed for animals. Canola: Canola is different from rapeseed and it is lower in erucic acid and glucosinolates, which are anti-nutritive and health. Canola type varieties are free of these elements. PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY
Climate: Rapeseed is well adapted in temperate region and requires cool temperature for vegetative and reproductive growth. The growth cycle of rapeseed may be as short as 70 days or long as 380 days. Rapeseed and Mustard grow best under relatively cool temperatures upto flowering. After flowering they can tolerate high temperature, however, more heat and drought stress may result in a reduction of seed size, crop yield and oil contents. Among rape and mustard crops, sarson is the most susceptible to frost injury whereas,'raya' and taramira are more tolerant to extreme weather condition. Soil: Rapeseed-mustard can be grown on a wide range of soils including both light and heavy type. Crop can tolerate a variable range of pH from 5.5 to 8.0. However, the most suitable soils are those that are: - Deep and free from hardpan, allow good taproot development, uniformly textured, allow even establishment. - Unlikely to crust after rain, so that the seedling can emerge easily. - Not prompt to water logging, rapeseed will tolerate winter waterlogging. This applies especially to B. campestris. - Not Acidic with high aluminum and manganese levels.
Seedbed Preparation: Brassica seed must be placed into a firm, moist warm aerated, well-structured seedbed for rapid germination and seedling growth. A good seedbed for rape and mustard should be reasonably levelled, well packed, slightly lumpy and moist within 2-5 cm of the surface. A loose seedbed with large lumps dries out quickly and affects germination adversely. A very fine seedbed is also not suitable, as heavy rains followed by drought may result in crust formation and impede emergence. A comparatively moist seedbed is desired for zaid Kharif crop to obtain a good germination. Wet soils should be avoided. Rapeseed can be established successfully using direct drilling and zero tillage. For optimum seed bed preparation one mould board plough 30-40 days before planting is required to preserve moisture. At the time of planting 2-3 times cultivator followed by planking is sufficient for seed bed preparation. Sowing Time: Timing will be influenced by soil, variety/hybrid, temperature and moisture level. The planting schedule for different areas is as follows: * NWFP: Mid-September to mid October
* Punjab: 1st October to 1st November
* South Punjab: Mid-October to mid November
* Sindh: Mid-October to mid November
Balochistan: Mid-October to mid November
Seed Rate: Yields are not affected significantly due to varied plant densities. Moderate adjustments in seed rate have little effect on yield. Thin crop stand compensate by extra branching. However, recommended seeding rates is 1.5 to 2.0 kg/acre. - Lower than normal seed rate will help to reduce lodging and harvest. - Seed rate above 2.5 kg/acre will result in tall spindly plants prone to lodging. - Increased seed rate suppresses weed infestation. At NARC, it has been observed that dense crop stand discourages too many branching and crop matures more uniformly...
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