SCHOOL OF HUMANITIES AND SOCIAL SCIENCES
UNIT: AHT 414; COMPARATIVE GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS IN INDUSTRIALIZED COUNTRIES LECTURER: JOSEPH MAGUT
STUDENT: C01/0150/2010. KIPKORIR ALLAN SOI
DATE: FRIDAY, 7th JANUARY 2014
TERM PAPER: COMPARATIVELY EVALUATE THE FOREIGN POLICY OF POST INDEPENDENCE KENYA AND TANZANIA. EMAIL: firstname.lastname@example.org
At independence, Kenya had precisely capitalism ideological orientation whereas Tanzania leaned towards African socialism. This divergent ideological positions and interests presage the differential policies pursued by the two state actors at the arena of competing and warring international political society. Perhaps this explains why Kenya pursued national and self- interested ends at a time when Tanzania undertook collective interests of South African states against regional imperialism and dependence bedeviling the African continent. Beginning with a low profile in regional as well as international relations- often assuming regional cooperation- the two countries increased their involvement in regional and sub- regional cooperation. CONTENT:
During 1963 independence, Kenya inherited double challenges to state power- one from the Shifta irredentism menace in the North Eastern Province with allegations flowing that the Somalia republic sympathized with the sub-nationalist Shifta militia along their common porous border. This was a political grudge that Kenya would settle with Somalia later in the 1978-79 Ogaden war of. Two, Kenya inherited a volatile territorial dispute with expansionist neighboring states- with Uganda claiming Karsuk region and Sudan laying hands on the Lokichogio triangle. Problems of regional territorial diplomacy escalated with the Siyad barres Somalia, Al Bashir’s sudan and Museveni’s Uganda who hatched hostile aims towards Kenya. Kenya reacted strongly by rebutting these claims and protecting the colonial boundaries in operation before independence a move that would inform Kenya’s foreign policy in subsequent decades to come. In 1964, a contingents of the Kenya army mutinied in Lanet barracks. The state underwent for the first time the real threat of a violent takeover- more than ever, made Kenya realize the primacy of the control of the military for political stability. The British forces helped to put off the recalcitrance. Therefore, Kenya entered into an alliance with Britain culminating in the signing of a mutual military assistance. It was during these tense times that Kenya reached an agreement with Ethiopia who shared a common enemy- Somalia whom Ethiopia alleged facilitated a similar Somali irredentist militia attack Ethiopia from the Somali soil. Other complex threats from leftist Kenya Peoples Union party at home, Tanzania radical policies from 1967, Uganda from 1969, Sudan in 1969 and Ethiopia as from 1974 after the overthrow. By 1965, East African Common Services Organization that had been formed in 1961 to provide social services, create a common currency, common appellate court and a common market where goods and services circulate freely began facing serious challenges- stemming from growing nationalism and divergent ideological, political and economic policies of individual states. EACSO was later transformed to East African Community in 1967. Orwa D. Katete in Oyugi W. O. (1994), the reason for maintaining EAC was primarily geared towards good neighborliness as long as it favored economic interests of Kenya. As from 1970’s Kenya and Tanzania became dynamic participants in foreign affairs thereby enhancing their agendas in foreign policy. Regional and international took front seat as IMF and World Bank roles intensified in the developing countries. SAPs enriched roots coming at a time when OPEC induced militant third wordlists in geopolitics. Meanwhile, Tanzania played a pivotal role in the liberation of Southern African countries from 1960’s through 1970’s and for...
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