Illiteracy

Topics: Literacy, Functional illiteracy, International Literacy Day Pages: 14 (4118 words) Published: June 19, 2013
2006/ED/EFA/MRT/PI/22

Background paper prepared for the Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2006

Literacy for Life

Pakistan: where and who are the world’s illiterates?
Munir Ahmed Choudhry
April 2005

This paper was commissioned by the Education for All Global Monitoring Report as background information to assist in drafting the 2006 report. It has not been edited by the team. The views and opinions expressed in this paper are those of the author(s) and should not be attributed to the EFA Global Monitoring Report or to UNESCO. The papers can be cited with the following reference: “Paper commissioned for the EFA Global Monitoring Report 2006, Literacy for Life”. For further information, please contact efareport@unesco.org

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Table of Contents
1. Historical Scenario of Adult Literacy in Pakistan ………………………. 1.3 Trends of Literacy and Illiteracy ………………………………………… 1.3.1 Literacy definitions and corresponding literacy rate …………….. 1.3.2 Present Literacy and Illiteracy Rate ………………………………. 1.4 The challenge in Literacy ………………………………………………… 1.5 Main Concentration of Illiterates ………………………………………… 1.5.1 Provincial Comparison in Literacy/Illiteracy Rates ……………… 1.5.2 District Comparison in Literacy/Illiteracy Rates …………….…… 1 2 2 2 3 4 4 4

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Pakistan’s Illiterates ………………………………………………………… 5 • Rural People • Poor and deserving people • Ethnic Minorities • Nomads and Refugees • Handicaps and People with Special Needs • Girls and Women Policies to Tackle Illiteracy …………………………………………………. 6 Programmes and Practices to improve literacy …………………………… 4.1 Nai Roshni School and Iqra Project ……………………………….……… 4.2 Eradication of Illiteracy from Selected Areas of Pakistan ……………….. 4.3 Quranic Literacy Project 1992-94 ………………………………………... 4.4 Establishment of 10000 Non Formal Basic Education (NFBE) Schools … 4.5 Crash Literacy Programme ……………………………………………….. 4.6 Adult Literacy Centers (2001-06) ………………………………………… 4.7 Literacy Programmes by NGOs …………………………………………... 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 9

3. 4.

5.

Conclusion/Sum up ………………………………………………………….. 9

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Study/Report Where and Who are the World’s Illiterates – Pakistan 1 Historical Scenario of Adult Literacy in Pakistan 1.1 Historically, a commitment to adult literacy has always been there in all Education Policies of Pakistan. In 1970s the Education Policy of 1972 and 1979 both took cognizance of this issue. In 1981 a Literacy and Mass Education Commission was established to promote literacy in Pakistan. In 1985 even a literacy ordinance at Federal level was passed to promote literacy through a package of incentives such as; grant of driving license, issuance of passport and employment in federal government only to those people who were literate. Unfortunately, this could not be implemented till to-day, despite that it became an Act after approval of the parliament in 1987. The main reason is nonavailability of adequate facilities, infrastructure and services for adult literacy especially in remote rural areas due to inadequate funding and scarcity of resources for literacy. It indicates that there had been lack of political commitment for adult literacy. 1.2 In (1998) another “National Education Policy (1998-2010) was formed and fixed adult literacy target of 55% by 2003 and 70% by 2010. This was followed by Education Sector Reforms (ESR) 2001-2006, which within the Education Policy Framework re-fixed the target as 60% by 2005. The Poverty Reduction Strategy paper also supports this. In further continuation of the aforesaid policies and Dakar Framework of Action 2000 a “National Plan of Action on Education For All (2001-15)” has been prepared by the Ministry of Education in collaboration with UNESCO. This focuses on three themes i) elementary education, adult literacy and early childhood education. The Adult Literacy targets as per NPA are as under; i. Phase-I ii. Phase-II iii. Phase-III 2001-02 to 2005-06 2006-07 to 2010-11 2010-11 to 2015-16 = = = 61% (male 71.5% : Female 50.5%)...
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