IGCSE Biology Notes

Topics: Blood, Cell, Red blood cell Pages: 46 (7107 words) Published: March 8, 2015
Grade 10 Biology Revision Guide

Characteristics of Living Organisms
Nutrition:
Respiration:
Excretion:
Sensitivity:
Movement:
Homeostasis:
Reproduction:
Growth:

Taking in food for growth and releasing energy.
Burning glucose to release energy.
Removing waste material like urea formed during chemical reactions. Responding to changes in the environment.
Transport inside cells and moving the body.
Control their internal conditions.
Increasing the number of organisms.
Increasing the number of cells.

Variety of Living Organisms
Plants:
o
o
o
o
o
o

Multicellular organisms
Contain chloroplasts and are able to carry out photosynthesis Have cellulose walls outside the cell walls to provide support to the cell Store carbohydrates as starch and sucrose
Have large permanent vacuoles filled with cell sap that contains water and dissolved substances Vary greatly in size and shape
 Example of flowering plant:
Rose
 Examples of cereals:
Maize
 Examples of non-flowering plant:
Conifers
Animals:
o Multicellular organisms
o Do not contain chloroplasts and cannot carry out photosynthesis o Do not have cell walls
o Have small temporary vacuoles
o Usually have a nervous system and can move from one place to another o Often store carbohydrates as glycogen
 Example of a vertebrate is human
 Example of invertebrate is earthworm
Fungi:
o Cannot carry out photosynthesis
o Some are multicellular:
 Consist of mycelium made from thread-like structures called hyphae, which contain many nuclei
 Reproduce by spores
Example:
Mucor
o Some are single celled:

Page 1 of 46

Grade 10 Biology Revision Guide



Have cell walls made of chitin
Reproduce by budding
Example:
Yeast
o Feed by extracellular secretion of digestive enzymes onto the food material and absorption of the organic products. Also known as saprotrophic nutrition.
o Store carbohydrates as glycogen.
Bacteria:
o Microscopic single-celled organisms.
o Lacks a nucleus but contains a circular chromosome of DNA
o They have cell walls, cell membrane, cytoplasm and plasmids o Some can produce their own food during photosynthesis as they have chlorophyll o Some feed off other living or dead organisms and are known as decomposers o Many can move around using one or more flagella and have a protective layer around the cell wall called a capsule

 Example:
Lactobacillus bulgaricus, a rod shaped bacterium is used in the production of yoghurt from milk
Pneumococcus, a spherical bacterium causes pneumonia
Proctista:
o Microscopic single celled organisms
o They have a true nucleus and other organelles
o Some are animal like while others resemble plant or fungus cell structure o All have a simple cell structure
 Example:
Amoeba have features like animal cell and they live in pond water Chlorella have chloroplasts and are more like plants
Plasmodium is a pathogen that causes malaria
Virus:
o Small particles – smaller than bacteria
o Are parasite as they can only reproduce inside living cells o Infect every type of living organism
o Have a wide variety of shapes and sizes
o Have no cell structure but have a protein coat called capsid and a core that contains one type of nucleic acid , either DNA or RNA
 Example:
Tobacco mosaic virus that causes the discolouring of the leaves of tobacco plants by preventing the formation of chloroplasts
Influenza virus that causes flu in humans. Influenza spreads by droplet infection HIV that cause AIDS. AIDS spreads by exchange of body fluids H1N1 virus that causes swine flu. Swine flu spreads by droplet infection

Page 2 of 46

Grade 10 Biology Revision Guide
Pathogen: Any organism or agent, capable of causing disease or infection. This may be in the form of virus, bacteria, proctista or fungi.

BACTERIA CELL

VIRUS CELL

Page 3 of 46

Grade 10 Biology Revision Guide

PLANT CELL

ANIMAL CELL

FUNGI CELL

Page 4 of 46

Grade 10 Biology Revision Guide...
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Igcse Biology Essay
  • IGCSE Biology Essay
  • Essay about Biology Notes
  • Biology Essay
  • Biology Essay
  • biology Essay
  • biology Essay
  • Biology Notes Research Paper

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free