Unit 4: ID Terms Ch.13-15
1. National-Republicans: They became the Whig party during Jackson's second term. John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay guided this party in the 1830s. They were the Jeffersonian Republicans, along with numerous former Federalists who believed that the national government should advocate economic development. They were united by their opposition of Jackson's policies, committed to Clay's American System and believed in active intervention by the government to change society. They became a national party with appeal by 1836. 2.(Jacksonian) Democratic Party: The people should governed as little as possible. Government for the people. Government should be done directly by the people. New democracy based on universal white manhood suffrage rather than property qualifications, common man now became more influential. New voters demanded politicians that would represent common peoples’ interest. 3. Anti-Masonic Party: became first 3rd party in American presidential election. Opposed secrecy of Masonic order an 18th century fraternal organization using rationalist Christian doctrine, ritual symbolism, and civic virtue. Anti-Masonic party attracted evangelical groups eager to fuse moral and religious reforms with politics. National nominating conventions in all 3 parties: a bit like today’s system. 4. Whig Party: Supported by northern industrialists and merchants (wealthiest Americans) Supported Clay’s American System. Sought to reduce the spoils system. Southern states’ rights advocates angry at Jackson’s stand on nullification. Evangelicals from Anti-Masonic party joined. Later supported moral reforms: prohibition of alcohol and abolition of slavery. Sought to use national government to solve societies problems (over states’ rights issues). 5. Corrupt Bargain: Election of 1824, Candidates were Jackson, Clay, Crawford, and John Quincy Adams. All four rivals were “Republicans” only one party still existed. Jackson polled the most popular votes but didn’t have the majority of electoral vote. 12th Amendment states House of Representative must choose among first 3 finishers. Clay finished 4th but he was the Speaker of the House and in charge of selection. Clay hated Jackson, his major political opponent in the West. J.Q. Adams was a nationalist, supported the American System, 1825, House of Reps elected Adams as president. Adams announced Clay as secretary of state a few days later. Jackson’s supporters called the affair the “corrupt bargain”. 6. Spoils System: brought to the federal government on a large scale. Rewarding political supporters with public office. Martin Van Buren was main architect of the spoils system, Engineered a spoils system/political machine in NY (“Albany Regency”). Jackson believed in the ideal of “rotation in office” or “turn about is fair play”. Civik service had in some ways become corrupt and ineffective 7. Tariff of 1828: Biggest issue of Adam’s presidency. The tariff protected the American industry against European manufactured goods. In 1828 it was passed and Calhoun was opposed it, this began Calhoun’ rivalry with Jackson. The southerners were also against it and they regarded it as a Black tariff. The south suffered as consumers and exporters. They feared the the power of the government was too strong. 8. South Carolina Exposition: The document, written by John C. Calhoun, was a protest against the Tariff of 1828. It promoted the nullification theory. This was another example of the rising tension between the North and South and foreshadowed secession. 9. Compromise Tariff of 1833: It was a new tariff proposed by Henry Clay and John Calhoun that gradually lowered the tariff to the level of the tariff of 1816 This compromise avoided civil war and prolonged the union for another 30 years. 10. Second Bank of the US (Bank War): President Jackson had made clear his constitutional objections to and personal antagonism toward the bank. He believed it concentrated too much economic...
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