Topics: Computer, Computer software, Computer program Pages: 8 (2192 words) Published: April 14, 2015

ADM. NO. BLAW/2014/60143


ASSIGNMENT – 13/14TH June 2014


a) There are five key components of a computer system. Briefly discuss them, giving examples in each.

Processor Operation

The processor executes a sequence of instructions that are located in memory. Execution of each instruction involves at least the first three of the following activities. The last four activities are required for some, but not all, instructions.

The program counter (PC) holds the address of the next instruction. For a simple processor, the arithmetic-logic unit (ALU) performs all arithmetic and logical operations.

The activities are approximately in time order. However, some of the activities can be overlapped in time.

Instruction fetch
Program counter (PC) update
Instruction decode
Source operand fetch
Arithmetic-logic unit (ALU) operation
Memory access
Register write

The data path
A data path manipulates the data coming through the processor. It also provides a small amount of temporary data storage. The organization of the data path can be determined from these activities. Where an activity requires selecting among different options depending on the instruction, there will be a multiplexer that selects the appropriate option as directed by a control signal.

Consists of the following components.
Programmable registers - small units of data storage that are directly visible to assembly language programmers. They can be used like simple variables in a high-level program. Program counter (PC) - holds the address for fetching instructions. Multiplexers have control inputs coming from control. They are used for routing data through the datapath. Processing elements - compute new data values from old data values. In simple processors the major processing elements are grouped into an Arithmetic-Logic Unit (ALU). Special-purpose registers - hold data that is needed for processor operation but is not directly visible to assembly language programmers.

It generates control signals that direct the operation of memory and the data path. The control signals do the following. Tell memory to send or receive data.
Tell the ALU what operation to perform.
Route data between different parts of the data path.

Memory holds instructions and most of the data for currently executing programs. The rest of the data is held in programmable registers, which can only hold a limited amount of data. Examples are Random Access Memory and Read Only Memory

This is data coming into the processor from external input devices such as keyboards, mice, disks, and networks. Input - external devices used to key or feed in instruction in the computer such as keyboards, mice, disks, and networks that provide input to the processor. Input handling is largely under the control of operating system software.

Output is data going from the processor to external output devices such as displays, printers, disks, and networks. Output - external devices such as displays, printers, disks, and networks that receive data from the processor.

In modern processors, this data is placed in memory before leaving the processor. Output handling is largely under the control of operating system software. The following diagram illustrates the above components in summay

b) The amount of memory in computers is typically measured in bytes also called memory locations. Calculate the number of bits in a 212GB free space of a hard disk using your knowledge on bits, characters and bytes. Clearly show your workings systematically.

c) Differentiate the below terms.
I. Storage device and storage media
Storage Device refers to the apparatus for recording computer data. The can be classified as stated below Primary Storage...
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