Research Question: The fall of the mutually friendly American Soviet relations was most significantly caused by the Soviet Union expanding it borders, violating its allied agreements, and imposing communist governments on its neighboring nations. Command Term: Analyze and Explain
Locales: Eastern/Western Europe
Events: The end of world war two and the conferences during and following including Yalta,Potsdam and Tehran. Also informations and influence of the Marshall Plan and the Truman Doctrine. The reaction of the Soviets with the Molotov Plan and COMECON and their plan to spread communism. Include the Korean war and other wars. Significance: At the end of WWII Stalin had the red army spread throughout Germany and Eastern Europe and it made the impression he was rather occupying it than helping it. Stalin and his wants for Poland. The United States and the Marshall Plan to help raise communism out of Greece and Turkey and to keep communism contained. The creation of the United Nations and Russia's permanent seat giving Stalin veto power. Key Figures: Joseph Stalin, Winston Churchill, Harry Truman, Clement Attlee. Related Topics: Causes, Practices and effects of war and Political developments in the Americas after World War Two.
Topic: The Cold War and the Americas (1945-1981)
Research Question: The impact of U.S foreign aid on Europe and the conflict it arose with the USSR to cause the cold war Command Term: Analyze and Explain
Locales: Greece, Turkey, Poland, Germany. Overall Europe.
Events: The aid to Greece and Turkey to help aid their weak economy and get rid of communism. The uprising of the Lublin Poles to get Poland free elections and a non communist government. The Marshall Plan and Truman Doctrine to give economic help and military help to Europe. COMECON and the Molotov plan to help spread communism around Europe. Significance: Stalin wanted to move Poland back so they would not be exposed by any possible threat of entry. Mainly Greece and Turkey U.S forces were there to push out Stalin's communism and use of Salami Tactics. The aid of the U.S to Korea and their involvement as well China's involvement. Key Figures: Harry Truman, Winston Churchill, Joseph Stalin
Related Topics: The Cold War, Cold War Origins and Civil Rights movements.
How did the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall plan impact the development of the cold war in its early years? The types of sources to be used are the Truman doctrine the Marshall plan, The Molotov plan and COMECON and many more documents including NATO and so on. How did the Marshall Plan affect Europe and what was the reaction of the Soviet Union. How did the Truman Doctrine affect Turkey and Greece and how did it affect the soviet union and its internal communist parties in these countries and how did it drive them to create COMECON and the molotov plan. What was the worldview of these actions from other countries within Europe that did not take aid from either country. What was the United States goal in this aid to Europe and why. What were the reactions of the Soviets and why did they act this way, and what counter measures did they take. As well the National Security Act of 1947 which was used to make key foreign policy issues. The two main sources of this argument is the Marshall Plan and the Truman Doctrine. the time frame is between 1947 and about 1960. The key elements are the three conferences Yalta, Potsdam, Tehran as well the Marshall Plan the Truman doctrine, The Molotov Plan, COMECON, NATO and NCS. Investigational questions involve the US and their “plan” for economic domination to rule over Europe as well spread Capitalism, and over all the spheres of influence both U.S and Soviet.
Archer, Stanley. "Marshall Plan Provides Aid To Europe." Salem History. Salem Press, 3 Apr. 1948. Web. 6 May 2014. Carter, R. O'Brian . "European Payments Union Is Formed." Salem History. Salem Press, 1 July 1950. Web. 6 May 2014. Esposito, Chiarella. "France Launches The Monnet Plan ." Salem History. Salem Press, 17 Mar. 1946. Web. 6 May 2014. Flynn, George , and Joseph Rudolph. "Truman Doctrine." Salem History. Salem Press, 12 Mar. 1947. Web. 6 May 2014. Marshall, George . "The Marshall Plan." The Marshall Plan. Primary Sources, 5 June 1947. Web. 7 May 2014.
Rogers, Keely, and Jo. Thomas. History: 20th century world : the Cold War. Essex: Pearson Education, 2008. Print.
Truman, Harry. "Home." Our Documents - Truman Doctrine. Our Documents, 12 Mar. 1947. Web. 5 May 2014. Penn University and Project GCSE. "The Truman Doctrine." Truman Doctrine. N.p., 12 Jan. 2000. Web. 11 May 2014. Truman, Harry . "Avalon Project - Truman Doctrine." Avalon Project - Truman Doctrine. Yale Law School, 1 Jan. 2008. Web. 9 May 2014.
The Truman Doctrine was a response to a crisis to stop Soviet expansion. Britain could no longer afford to give aid to the Greek government to fight back Stalins “Salami Tactics” so the Truman made this doctrine to continue the aid to Greece and Turkey. (Flynn) Without help Greece would fall into communism and in order to stop that the United States needs to give them aid so they could become a democracy. (Flynn) In Truman's speech to Congress to pass the doctrine he introduced the “domino theory”. Which states that if one country were to fall to communism all the others around it would follow like dominos. (Penn) Economic:
In 1948 America gave Greece 338 million dollars one quarter was used for food another for economic but half of the money went towards military aid to push the communist rebels out of Greece. (Truman,Avalon Project) In Turkey another 80 million was spent of military aid and 4.5 on economic however almost no money was spent on food aim. (Penn) Before the Truman doctrine the most powerful policy had been the “Monroe Doctrine”. Which was the first step as it was only economic aid whereas Truman gave military aid. (Penn) The Truman Doctrine asked Congress to give economic aid to Greece (400 million) and in this way after the implementation of the Truman Doctrine the Marshall Plan immediately followed to help Europe economically. (Penn) Political:
Winston Churchill believed the only way to stop Soviet expansion was to hae Great Britain and the U.S. team. (Iron Curtain). (Penn) Soviets wanted Turkey to give up territory and to have a joint administration of the Dardanelles. (Penn) Also others thought that Truman should have gone further than just containment but take action. Including Paul Nitze and John Foster Dulles they thought that the U.S should go to war if provoked, fight for peace oppose Korean and Chinese communism and reject Russia in the U.S. (Penn) Truman also had many writings and people influence his decision in developing the doctrine. First the American ambassador to Russia George Kennan in his writings he says that communism needs to be contained and if contained it would destroy itself with no where to expand. Also in 1946 Clark Clifford in a report said that we should offer support to any democratic country that is threatened by the U.S.S.R. (Penn) In the development of the Cold War The Truman Doctrine in fact did not threaten communism because it clearly states that it is to contain communism not destroy it. The overall goal was to back up the surrounding countries if the communism spread. So it was not an act of aggression. (Flynn) Military:
The Truman doctrine also was the first step towards collective security and overall the creation of NATO. (Flynn) In 1946 The Soviets invaded Iran for oil and minerals and Stalin tried to stay there through political means asking for mineral and oil rights. However Britain and the U.S. did not stand for this so they threatened military force and Stalin backed out. (Penn)
Was an economic aid program developed right after the Truman doctrine to help European countries recover from WWII and resist Soviet expansion. (Archer) Most European countries devastated economically and needed aid fast to get their economies running again and help the people in the harsh winter of 1946. (Archer) George Marshall believed that his personal relationship with Stalin would help him compromise with Stalin and make him happy, for a more peaceful and smooth plan. (Archer) The planning of the Marshall Plan greatly involved Kennan which he was the ambassador in Russia so he was an expert on the Soviet Union. (Rogers) After the meeting of the international countries the Marshall Plan was born to help aid Europe with good cooperation to build relations and to help Europe's long term economic health. (Archer) The Marshall Plan was a way of containing communism through American economic strength. (Archer) More than one third of the Marshalls Plans aid went towards food support. (Archer) The Marshall Plan was a huge success after 4 years in 1950 most European countries had more agricultural production than prewar productions. (Rogers) The Marshall Plan helps people indirectly by providing aid for the long term effect instead of short term to overall benefit countries. (Rogers) The United States also wanted to decrease the power of cartels to open up free trade and spread capitalism in Europe. (Archer) This economic resurgence brought about a whole new Europe with peace and prosperity, there were elections to make right governments and give people freedom and overall pushed out communism. (Archer)
Origin: Truman, Harry . "Avalon Project - Truman Doctrine." Avalon Project - Truman Doctrine. Yale Law School, 1 Jan. 2008. Web. 9 May 2014. This is Truman's speech to Congress in regards to the situation in Greece and Turkey. This speech was written by president Harry S. Truman his intent was to convince Congress that it was necessary for the U.S. to help Greece economically and militarily. He believed in the containment of communism by influence of Kennan and others like George Marshall. Purpose: The main purpose of this article was not mainly focused on helping Greece recover economically but to push out the communist and contain it. Truman was informed that Britain could no longer support Greece or Turkey so they pulled out and Truman realized that the U.S. needed to take over. He realized from Yalta that Stalin would give Greece and Turkey over to Britain once the war was over however that was not the case. Stalin claims he has no part in the communist parties trying to take over in these countries however its happening. To contain communism Truman proposed this plan before Congress to give 400 million to Greece and Turkey. Truman points out that both countries have been devastated from the war and can not economically support themselves and if we don't help communism will take over and continue to spread by the “domino theory”. Values: The document was written by Harry Truman himself so its a first person primary source. From this we can see the United States plan through the eyes of the person who created it back in 1947. It also is reliable because it is on a college site that documents historical and diplomatic documents. We can see the positive and negative things from the point of view of the United States as well their main priorities. Limitations: It is in the view from the United States President so we will only see their priorities and problems. As well we cannot see what Greece or Turkeys priorities are for their country. It is also in 1947 so we do not see the analysis of the aftermath of at a later date looking back at these events. We only have one view that Soviet expansion and communism is evil.
Origin: Penn University and Project GCSE. "The Truman Doctrine." Truman Doctrine. N.p., 12 Jan. 2000. Web. 11 May 20. This article tells us about the Truman doctrine and the effects of it. This is well edited and the author gives us the facts about the Truman Doctrine rather than opinion. Purpose: The purpose of this article is to tell us the facts about the Truman Doctrine and its benefits and success in Europe. The strong point of the article was stating that this Doctrine to mainly focusing on the containment of communism by aiding Greece and Turkey so the communist parties in these countries did not succeed. It also included the effects of the doctrine how is lead to collective security and eventually NATO. Values: The value of this article is that is was written after the speech was given and presents some form of analysis and later effects of the doctrine. As well it shows how the Truman doctrine affected the Cold War in how it lead to the creation of NATO and initial conflict between the U.S. and the Soviet Union. It also offers first hand quote from the speech and documents of Truman to support the facts and analysis. Limitations: The limitations to this document are that it was written after the speech and progress so it is more analysis than first hand situational information. It also limits my research in finding the impact of the Truman doctrine that it is more telling the effects and what it lead to rather than its initial impact and problems in Greece and Turkey at the time
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