Hyponyms: Pronoun and Reference Chain

Topics: Pronoun, Noun, Personal pronoun Pages: 16 (4625 words) Published: September 6, 2011
Hyponyms, Meronyms, Homonyms, and Synonyms
Posting by Fitry Mayanti on Saturday, December 26, 2009
Label: semantics
Hyponymy is the relationship between hyponyms. Hyponyms is the word the meaning ofwhich may be said to be included in that of another word. For example:

-Rose is a hyponym of flower
-Spinster is a hyponym of woman

Hyponym is transitive. Potato is a kind of vegetables, and vegetable is a kind of plant. Potato is also a hyponym of plants as we can say potato is a kind of plant. If A is a hyponym of B, then A is a kind of B. Meronymy is the relationship between meronyms. Meronyms is a part-whole relationshipbetween lexical items. For example:

-Finger is a meronym of hand
-Cover and page are meronyms of book

X is a meronym of Y if Xs are parts of Y(s), or X is a meronym of Y if Xs are members of Y(s). As in a page is part of a book, or a book has pages.

Homonyms are different words which are pronounced the same, but have different meanings. When the same word has different meanings, we call it polysemous.Homonyms and polysemy may create ambiguity. An expression is ambiguous if more than one meaning can be assigned to it.

Synonymy is the relationship between synonyms. Synonyms are words which sound different, but have the same or nearly the same meanings and therefore may often be used interchangeably.

An example of synonyms is the words cat and feline. Each describes any member of the family Felidae. Similarly, if we talk about a long time or an extended time, long, andextended become synonyms.

More examples of English synonyms are:
-Baby and infant (noun)
-Student and pupil (noun)
-Pretty and attractive (adjective)
-Sick and ill (adjective)
-Interesting and fascinating (adjective)
-Quickly and speedily (adverb)
Collocation Lists
On this page you can find a few short lists of collocations to give you more of an idea about them. Many good learner's dictionaries show collocations associated with specific words. There are also dictionaries of collocations, though these are more difficult to find. Some common verbs|

have| do| make|
have a bath
have a drink
have a good time
have a haircut
have a holiday
have a problem
have a relationship
have a rest
have lunch
have sympathy| do business
do nothing
do someone a favour
do the cooking
do the housework
do the shopping
do the washing up
do your best
do your hair
do your homework| make a difference
make a mess
make a mistake
make a noise
make an effort
make furniture
make money
make progress
make room
make trouble|
take| break| catch|
take a break
take a chance
take a look
take a rest
take a seat
take a taxi
take an exam
take notes
take someone's place
take someone's temperature| break a habit
break a leg
break a promise
break a record
break a window
break someone's heart
break the ice
break the law
break the news to someone
break the rules| catch a ball
catch a bus
catch a chill
catch a cold
catch a thief
catch fire
catch sight of
catch someone's attention
catch someone's eye
catch the flu|
pay| save| keep|
pay a fine
pay attention
pay by credit card
pay cash
pay interest
pay someone a compliment
pay someone a visit
pay the bill
pay the price
pay your respects| save electricity
save energy
save money
save one's strength
save someone a seat
save someone's life
save something to a disk
save space
save time
save yourself the trouble| keep a diary
keep a promise
keep a secret
keep an appointment
keep calm
keep control
keep in touch
keep quiet
keep someone's place
keep the change|
come| go| get|
come close
come complete with
come direct
come early
come first
come into view
come last
come late
come on time
come prepared
come right back
come second
come to a compromise
come to a decision
come to an agreement
come to an end
come to a standstill
come to terms with
come to a total of
come under attack| go...
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