Contrary to popular belief’s Hydraulic Fracturing is not a drilling process .It is the series of steps that are used after the drilling of hole in the ground is completed to create or restore small fractures or opening in the reservoir rock formation .These small fractures or opening in the reservoir are mainly used to extract –petroleum, natural gas ( such as shale gas , tight gas , and coal seam) ,water And natural substances This process was first used in 1947 to stimulate flow of natural gas from the Hugoton field in Kansas , however it was only 51 years later in 1998 that the modern fracturing technology also known as HORIZONTAL SLICKWATER FRACTURING made possible the extraction of shale gas .
Over the past years hydraulic Fracturing has delivered more than 600 trillion cubic feet of natural gas to just American consumer’s , the result of more than 1.1 million fracturing activities during that time .
The most crucial point of this technique is to apply so much pressure that it exceeds that of the fracture gradients of the rocks that they crack . A Hydraulic Fracture is caused by applying a couple of thousand pounds of pressure by pumping the FRACTURING FLUID that is made by mixing of –sand ,water and often with a small percentage of addictive’s or chemical’s.
And introducing them into a reservoir thousand’s of feet below .
Then physics take’s over .The strong force of the water creates a collection of tiny fissures (veins) in the impenetrable rock . The force of the water help the mixed sand to find it’s way into the rock through the cracks and hold it open .This creates a passage way through which the previously trapped shel gas and or petroleum can travel to the upper layer or to the wellbore .The fracturing process is then completed and it takes about 3 to 10 days to complete the entire process, on an average .
While the main use of the process of