Humans

Topics: Human, Human evolution, Humans Pages: 34 (11137 words) Published: February 11, 2009
developed nations, which benefited from stolen "human resources" as they were developing. This is an extremely controversial view, but it echoes the general theme of converting human capital to "human resources" and thus greatly diminishing its value to the host society, i.e. "Africa", as it is put to narrow imitative use as "labor" in the using societyestablished an extremely wide variety of traditions, rituals, ethics, values, social norms, and laws, which together form the basis of human society. Humans have a marked appreciation for beauty and aesthetics, which, combined with the desire for self-expression, has led to cultural innovations such as art, writing, literature and music. Humans are notable for their desire to understand and influence the environment around them, seeking to explain and manipulate natural phenomena through philosophy, art, science, mythology and religion. This natural curiosity has led to the development of advanced tools and skills; humans are the only species known to build fires, cook their food, clothe themselves; they also manipulate and develop numerous other technologies. Humans pass down their skills and knowledge to the next generations through education. Contents [hide]

1 Name
2 History
2.1 Origin
2.2 Paleolithic
2.3 Evolutionary studies
2.4 Transition to civilization
3 Habitat and population
4 Biology
4.1 Physiology and genetics
4.2 Life cycle
4.3 Diet
5 Psychology
5.1 Consciousness and thought
5.2 Motivation and emotion
5.3 Sexuality and love
6 Culture
6.1 Language
6.2 Spirituality and religion
6.3 Philosophy and self-reflection
6.4 Art, music, and literature
6.5 Tool use and technology
6.6 Race and ethnicity
6.7 Society, government, and politics
6.8 War
6.9 Trade and economics
7 References
8 External links
[edit]Name

Further information: Man (word) and List of alternative names for the human species The English adjective human is a Middle English loan from Old French humain, ultimately from Latin hūmānus, the adjective of homō "man". Use as a noun (with a plural humans) dates to the 16th century.[6] The native English term man is now often reserved for male adults, but can still be used for "mankind" in general in Modern English.[7] The word is from Proto-Germanic *mannaz, from a PIE root *man-, cognate to Sanskrit manu-. The generic name Homo is a learned 18th century derivation from Latin homō "man", ultimately "earthly being" (Old Latin hemō, cognate to Old English guma "man", from PIE *ðǵʰemon-)[8] The trinomen Homo sapiens sapiens dates to 1758. [edit]History

[edit]Origin
For more details on this topic, see Anthropology, Human evolution, Homo (genus), and Lower Paleolithic.

A reconstruction of Australopithecus afarensis, a human ancestor that had developed bipedalism, but which lacked the large brain of modern humans. The scientific study of human evolution encompasses the development of the genus Homo, but usually involves studying other hominids and hominines as well, such as Australopithecus. "Modern humans" are defined as the Homo sapiens species, of which the only extant subspecies is known as Homo sapiens sapiens. Homo sapiens idaltu (roughly translated as "elder wise human"), the other known subspecies, is now extinct.[9] Homo neanderthalensis, which became extinct 30,000 years ago, has sometimes been classified as a subspecies, "Homo sapiens neanderthalensis", but genetic studies now suggest a divergence of the Neanderthal species from Homo sapiens about 500,000 years ago[10]. Similarly, the few specimens of Homo rhodesiensis have also occasionally been classified as a subspecies, but this is not widely accepted. Anatomically modern humans first appear in the fossil record in Africa about 130,000 years ago, although studies of molecular biology give evidence that the approximate time of divergence from the common ancestor of all modern human populations was 200,000 years ago.[11][12][13] The closest living relatives of Homo...

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