Topics: Commercial sexual exploitation of children, Child sexual abuse, Child sex tourism Pages: 2 (516 words) Published: April 5, 2013
The benefits of economic globalization, internationalization, and free trade have brought with them an unanticipated set of social problems (Bales, 1999; Estes, 1997, 1998b; Kilias, 1993; Lie, 1996; Woodi- wiss, 1993). Among them is what appears to be a dramatic rise worldwide in the incidence of child exploitation. Among the most virulent forms of this exploitation is child sexual exploitation [hereafter "CSE"]—including the commercial sexual exploitation of children [hereafter “CSEC”] (United Nations, 1994a, 1994b, 1995; Unicef, 2000). Child pornography, juvenile prostitution and trafficking in children for sexual purposes have emerged as significant problems on the national, regional, and international stages (Barr, 1996; Botti, 2000; Caldwell et al. 1997; DoL, 1995, 1998; Ennew, 1986; Hughes, & Roche, 1999; Ireland, 1993; Jaffe & Rosen, 1996; Lederer, 2001; Leuchtag, 1995; Munir & Yasin, 1997; Skrobanek et al., 1997; Williams, 1999; YAPI, 1998).1 So, too, has sex tourism (Hughes & Roche, 1999; Pettman, 1997), including child sex tourism (Boye, 1996; Casa Alianza, 1999a; Gray, 2000; Klain, 1999; Seabrook, 1997). CSE and the CSEC appear to be related in complex ways with other forms of child exploitation, such as the use of children in labor, drug and warfare settings. Patterns in the commercialization of sex, whether it is in the form of formal monetary ex- changes or informal exchanges of goods and services, ratchet up the abusiveness of the relationship between the child and the trafficker and/or customer. The commercial nature of the relationships pile all the forces of economic interaction (value, profitability, return on investment, payment and pay back) on top of the physical and psychological coercion, duress, and deception that already permeate the sexually abusive relationship. In short, commercialization creates a dense layer of interpersonal enthrallment that is extremely difficult to battle against on behalf of child protection. Listed in the order...
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