Human Trafficking

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TSAONE JOSEPH MMEREKI 20507763

CRITICALLY ANALYSE HUMAN TRAFFICKING AS A FORM OF VICTIMISATION

INTRODUCTION

The phenomenon of human trafficking or modern-day slavery has received increased media coverage globally; this is because millions of people around the world suffer in silence under slave-like conditions of forced labour and commercial sexual exploitation from which they cannot free themselves. Human trafficking not only continues but appears to be on the rise worldwide primarily because most countries are involved in human trafficking to some extent, either as a place of recruitment, transit or the destination for trafficked individuals. This essay addresses the phenomenon of human trafficking as a form of victimisation and will define key concepts, identify and discuss victims of human trafficking and its trends. The discussion will further look in to the causes of vulnerability to trafficking, reasons for trafficking, how people get be trafficked and the responses or courses of action to reduce human trafficking. A case study of recent trafficking issue will also be provided to show the reality of the problem and lastly the conclusion will sum up the discussion in a nutshell.

DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS;

2.1 HUMAN TRAFFICKING

Hodge and Lietz (2007; 163) explain that human trafficking involves the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of people, by the use of force, threat or other forms of coercion, abduction, fraud, and deception. It also includes the abuse of power and position by giving or receiving payments to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation as explained by Hodge and Lietz (2007; 163) include forced prostitution and other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour and services, servitude and the involuntary removal of organs. In short, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime explain human trafficking as an act of recruiting, transporting,



References: Bales, K., (2004). _Disposable people: New slavery in the global economy_. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press Beyrer, C United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (2010). _Human trafficking_. URL (accessed 20 March 2010): http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/human-trafficking/what-is-human-trafficking.html Fichtelberg, A Hodge .R. & Lietz .C.A (2007). THE INTERNATIONAL SEXUAL TRAFFICKING OF WOMEN AND CHILDREN_. A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE,_ 22; 163. Affilia. Howley, S., & Dorris, C. (2007). _Legal rights for crime victims in the criminal justice system. (3rd ed.,_ Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Lehti, M., & Aromaa, K. (2007). Trafficking in humans for sexual exploitation in Europe. _International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice 31_, 123-45. T.K. Logan, Walker .R. & Hunt .G. (2009). UNDERSTANDING HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN THE UNITED STATES. _Trauma Violence Abuse;_ _10; 3;_ Skinner, E Hyland, K. (2001). Protecting human victims of trafficking: An American framework. _Berkeley Women 's Law_ _Journal, 16_, 29-71.

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