HRD: Concept and Meaning
Khan Sarfaraz Ali
The term human resources development (HRD) refers to the integrated use of training and development, organization development, and career development to improve individual, group, and organizational effectiveness (The American Society for Training and Development).[i] HRD aims to improve individual, group and organizational effectiveness and covers the development of people through education and training in a national context as well as within enterprises. HRD in an integrated sense also encompasses health care, nutrition, population policies and employment.[ii] Human resource development means develop the living forces of an organization through appropriate training and developmental activities. HRD aims to improve individual, group and organizational effectiveness and covers the development of people through education and training in a national context as well as within enterprises.[iii]
HRD is an area that touches all fields within the organization. No one is left untouched. Vertically and horizontally throughout the fact that employee organization, each department must come to grips with the obsolescence is an inevitable outcome of to-day’s increasing knowledge requirements. The phenomenon applies from the lowest paid operative to the chief executive officer. No one escapes change. HRD includes training and development activities that help new employees improve Job performance and prepare for higher-level position. Training refers to the efforts to improve an employee’s ability to perform a specific Job or serve an organizational role, whereas development refers to the efforts to increase tile employee’s ability to advance in the organization and perform additional job duties. In other words, training is job specific and development (HRD) is future oriented. HRD can help an organization attain its objectives and be cost effective in the process. However, several obstacles that blunt effectiveness of training efforts must be overcome. HRD activities have both generality and specificity. It starts with the new employee’s entrance to the organization, and then focuses on the components of a HRD system. These are as under: a)
HRD cannot be considered as an end in itself, it must be considered as a means to an end; b)
Managers must evaluate HRD activities in terms of return over cost; and c)
Managers must realize that HRD efforts are included to manage the learning process.
Organization Entry, Orientation and Socialization
Organization entry involves the activities of employee’s joining the organization. One such activity is orientation, which familiarizes new employees with their new work setting, their respective supervisor and co employees, the organizational values and expectation, the physical setting, the organization structure and the employer employee exchange relationship. Orientation programs launch the assimilation process (called organization socialization) whereby the organization’s performance requirements are meshed new employees expected rewards, including job satisfaction. Orientation program attempts to create favorable impression of the organization and provide more specific information about the tasks of the jobs and its relationship to the organization as a whole. Organizational socialization incorporates the orientation but expends the point where the employee is transformed productive, participating member of the workforce. Socialization process includes the three following phases: a)
The first phase involves what the new employee has learned in previous experiences; b)
The second phase occurs when the now employee encounters the real organization. This may cause the employee to adjust values, learn new skill, and change attitudes; c)
In the final phase, changes take place, new skills are mastered, new roles are successfully performed, and satisfactory adjustment is made to the work group’s value structure and norms....
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