Human Relations Movement refers to those researchers of organizational development who study the behavior of people in groups, in particular workplace groups. It originated in the 1930s' Hawthorne studies, which examined the effects of social relations, motivation and employee satisfaction on factory productivity. The movement viewed workers in terms of their psychology and fit with companies, rather than as interchangeable parts. "The hallmark of human-relation theories is the primacy given to organizations as human cooperative systems rather than mechanical contraptions." George Elton Mayo stressed the following:
Natural groups, in which social aspects take precedence over functional organizational structures Upwards communication, by which communication is two way, from worker to chief executive, as well as vice versa. Cohesive and good leadership is needed to communicate goals and to ensure effective and coherent decision making (Wilson & Rosenfeld, Managing Organizations, McGraw Hill Book Company, London, p.9.) It has become a concern of many companies to improve the job-oriented interpersonal skills of employees. The teaching of these skills to employees is referred to as "soft skills" training. Companies need their employees to be able to successfully communicate and convey information, to be able to interpret others' emotions, to be open to others' feelings, and to be able to solve conflicts and arrive at resolutions. By acquiring these skills, the employees, those in management positions, and the customer can maintain more compatible relationships. (DuBrin, A. J. (2007). Human Relations Interpersonal Job-Oriented Skills, Pearson Prentice Hall, 9th. ed., New Jersey, p. 2.) Institutes where human relations are studied include:
the Tavistock Institute, co-publishers of the Human Relations journal; the NTL Institute for Applied Behavioral Science;
The Oasis School of Human Relations, Masters Degree in Globally Responsible Leadership (Oasis Press publishes...
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