Human Papillomavirus Essay

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The Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is presently the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the world and is an identifiable source of 99% of cervical cancers, 80% to 90% of anal cancers, 70% of vaginal cancers, 40% of penile and vulvar cancers, 90% of oral-pharyngeal cancers, and 90% of anal condylomas.1.2 The prevalence rate of HPV is difficult to determine due to the asymptomatic nature of the virus. However, Hathaway indicated a 50% to 80% lifetime exposure and infection rate worldwide.3 Within the United States alone, approximately 20 million individuals are infected with an estimated six million newly diagnosed HPV infections annually.4
HPV is a double stranded DNA virus that affects squamous and basal cells of the oral, nasal, skin, vaginal, and anal epithelium and is
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Gardasil, Cervarix, and Gardasil-9 recombinant vaccines were made available in 2006, 2009, and 2014 respectively. However, overall vaccination rates are low. According to the National Immunization Survey of teenagers, only 14% of males completed the three-dose HPV vaccination in 2013.9 Furthermore, in 2013, the CDC reported that half of surveyed parents of male adolescents indicated that they had not received counseling from a healthcare provider regarding HPV vaccination9. As a result, the President’s Cancer Panel 2012-2013 proposed recommendations such as maximizing access to HPV vaccines, reducing missed clinical opportunities to recommend and administer the HPV vaccine, and increase adolescent and parental acceptance of the HPV vaccine.9
Studies have suggested low vaccination rates are a direct result of inadequate HPV education. A national survey in 2000 indicated less than one third of the United States population had heard of HPV and only 2% identified HPV as a STI.11 Additionally, Krawczyk, Stephenson, Perez, Lau, and Rosberger reported many young adults have no knowledge of HPV, the consequences of the disease, or vaccine

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