Human Growth And Development

Topics: Jean Piaget, Developmental psychology, Theory of cognitive development Pages: 58 (1962 words) Published: June 30, 2015
Human development

Principles of Growth and
Development
• Growth – increase in size or quantity
over time
• Development – systematic and orderly
change organisms experience as they
live and either gain or lose abilities

Principles of Growth and
Development

Growth is personal
Growth comes from within
Growth is gradual and orderly but uneven
Growth has certain characteristics common at
particular stages
• Development precedes from the head
downward (cephalocaudal)
• Development precedes from the center
outward (proximodistal)





Principles of Growth and
Development
• Development depends on maturation
and learning
• Development precedes from concrete
(simple) to complex
• Growth and development is a
continuous process
• Growth and development precede
from generic to specific
• There are individual rates of growth
and development

Heredity and Maturation

• Heredity
– is the passing of traits to offspring
– the process by which an offspring cell or
organism acquires or become predisposed to
the characteristics of the parent cell or
organism
– 23 pairs of chromosomes

• Maturation
– The emergence of personal and behavioral
characteristics through the growth process
Developmental milestones – set guidelines
for growth and maturation but vary
individually

Nature vs Nurture
• NATURE
– refers to inherited characteristics and
tendencies that influence development
– genes and hereditary factors: physical
appearance, personality

• NURTURE
– refers to all the environmental variables
that impact who we are, including our early
childhood experiences, how we were
raised, our social relationships, and our
surrounding culture.

Theories of Human
development

Piaget’s Stages of Human
development
•The four stages of Piaget's theory of
cognitive development correspond with
the age of the child and include the
following: sensorimotor, preoperational,
concrete operational, and formal
operational.
•The sensorimotor stage occurs from birth
to age 2 and is characterized by the idea
that infants "think" by manipulating the
world around them.

•The preoperational stage occurs from age
2 to age 7 and is characterized by the idea
that children use symbols to represent
their discoveries.
•The concrete operational stage occurs from
age 7 to age 11 and is characterized by the
idea that children's reasoning becomes
focused and logical.
•The formal operational stage occurs from
age 11 to adulthood and is characterized
by the idea that children develop the
ability to think in abstract ways.

Attachment Theory
•John Bowlby conceived of four stages
of attachment that begin during
infancy. These are preattachment,
attachment-in-the-making, clear-cut
attachment, and formation of
reciprocal relationships.
• Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth both
studied attachment in children, and
formulated both the stages and
different types of attachment.

• Ainsworth identified four types of
attachment that a child could possibly
demonstrate: secure, avoidant,
resistant/ambivalent, and
disorganized.

Freud’s Psychosexual Theory
of Development
•Freud believed that personality consisted
of three interworking parts - the id, the
ego, and the superego.
•The five stages of his psychosexual
development theory include the oral,
anal, phallic, latency, and genital stages.

•According to the theory, each stage of
psychosexual development must be met
successfully or children will grow to have
problems in adulthood.

Erikson’s Psychosocial
Theory of Development
•During each of the eight development stages,
two conflicting ideas must be resolved
successfully in order for the person to become a
confident, contributing member of society.
•The eight stages of development include: trust
vs. mistrust, autonomy vs. shame/doubt,
initiative vs. guilt, industry vs. inferiority, identity
vs. role confusion, intimacy vs. isolation,...
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