a) Briefly describe what Hawthorne Studies is, and explain the results and conclusions of these studies.
Hawthorne Studies were a series of experiments on worker productivity started 1924 at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric Company.
The tests were originally designed to investigate the effects of illumination on output. However, many of the tests pointed to the importance of factors other than illumination in affecting productivity.
Early interpretations agreed that human relations, not money, caused increased output. Workers performed better when managers treated them positively. New data showed that money mattered, but productivity increased because of increased feelings of importance and group pride employees felt when they were selected for the project. One unintended contribution of the experiments was a rethinking of field research practices. Researchers and scholars realized that the research subjects. This phenomenon has come to be known as the Hawthorne effect.
a) List the contributions of and criticisms to Scientific Management. Contribution
Demonstrated the importance of compensation for performance
Initiated the careful study of tasks and jobs
Demonstrated the importance of personnel selection and training Criticisms
Did not appreciate the social context of work and higher needs of workers Did not acknowledge variance among individuals
Tended to regard workers as uninformed and ignored their ideas and suggestions
a) Describe functional and divisional structures. text book pg 280
A functional structure is the strong vertical design. Information flows up and down the vertical hierarchy, and the chain of command converges at the top of the organization. In a functional structure, people within a department to coordinate work and accomplish tasks or implement decisions that are passed down the hierarchy. Managers and employees are compatible because of similar training and expertise. Typically, rules and procedures...
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