Human Resource Management Review 19 (2009) 117–133
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Human Resource Management Review
j o u r n a l h o m e p a g e : w w w. e l s ev i e r. c o m / l o c a t e / h u m r e s
Diversity in organizations: Where are we now and where are we going? Lynn M. Shore ⁎, Beth G. Chung-Herrera, Michelle A. Dean, Karen Holcombe Ehrhart, Don I. Jung, Amy E. Randel, Gangaram Singh Institute for Inclusiveness and Diversity in Organizations, Department of Management, College of Business Administration, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, CA 92182, USA
a r t i c l e
Keywords: Diversity Inclusiveness
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a b s t r a c t
A great deal of research has focused on workforce diversity. Despite an increasing number of studies, few consistent conclusions have yet to be reached about the antecedents and outcomes of diversity. Likewise, research on different dimensions of diversity (e.g., age, race, gender, sexual orientation, disability, and culture) has mostly evolved independently. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to examine each of these dimensions of diversity to describe common themes across dimensions and to develop an integrative model of diversity. © 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
While the term “workforce diversity” is commonly used in scholarly articles as well as in the popular press, the focus and scope of the research is both varied and broad. Until recently, most studies have focused on a single dimension of diversity (e.g., age, sex, race) in a domestic, typically U.S. context. In a world of globalization populated by boundaryless and virtual organizations, it is time to revisit the old theories of diversity and to create a new set of paradigms. Therefore, in this article we examine multiple dimensions of diversity to assess the current status of the literature, and to make some suggestions going forward. As a starting point, we examine six dimensions of diversity (race, gender, age, disability, sexual orientation, and national origin) to determine how these literatures have evolved. The purpose of this review is to provide a basis on which to focus on similarities and differences in these separate literatures, in order to determine the extent to which an integrative framework of diversity is meaningful and appropriate. To move toward identifying areas of similarity as a basis for integration, for each diversity dimension included in this article we ﬁrst brieﬂy review theoretical paradigms and the extent to which associated predictions for the diversity dimensions are positive, negative, or neutral. Since theories guide our research streams, we deem it important to evaluate the extent to which present-day theories adequately represent the potential array of outcomes from negative to positive that may exist for individuals, groups, and organizations. We also review literature on antecedents and outcomes studied within each diversity dimension. Subsequently, we examine themes by reviewing current theoretical paradigms and then limitations across different dimensions of diversity, with the goal of identifying points of integration and needed development for moving the literature forward. Finally, we present a broad model of diversity that integrates key variables and suggestions for the diversity literature going forward. 1. Race and ethnicity diversity A number of theories have been used for studying race/ethnicity as a central variable of interest.1 Most of these theories come from a micro-theoretical perspective and attempt to explain behavior from an individual, or within work group perspective.
⁎ Corresponding author. Fax: +1 619 594 3272. E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org (L.M. Shore). 1 Some of the more frequently cited theories include social identity theory (Tajfel, 1981), racial identity theory (Phinney, 1992), intergroup theory (Alderfer, 1986; Tajfel & Turner, 1986), social- and self-categorization theories...
References: L.M. Shore et al. / Human Resource Management Review 19 (2009) 117–133
L.M. Shore et al. / Human Resource Management Review 19 (2009) 117–133
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