Epidemiology and HPV
May 24, 2013
Epidemiology and HPV
Epidemiology, What? Is that even an English word? Epidemiology is the study of health and health concerns in a population with an emphasis on establishing cause and effect. Epidemiology looks at how the disease manifests and spreads through out a population that are a risk and come up with effective prevention and treatment. Epidemiology Triangle
Epidemiology is different from medical fields because it does not focus on one individual it focuses on a group. Epidemiology directly impacts public health. Epidemiology is centered on three factors in a population setting, the Host, the Agent, and the Environment. These three factors are part of the Epidemiology Triangle. The Host is the population the disease or health problem concern. The host is the Human who can come in contact with the disease. There are a lot of things that intrinsic the host and are often called risk factors. Opportunities for exposure often are influenced by the person’s behaviors for example Sexual practices, hygiene, a person’s choices and age and sex. Sometimes people are more susceptible due to genetic composition, nutrition, immune system, anatomic structure, present illness, medications and psychological makeup. The Agent is the health concern or the health problem. An Agent must be present for a disease to occur, but presence of an agent is not always sufficient to cause a disease. There are many factors that influnance weather an exposure will to an organism will result in disease, including pathogenicity and dose. The environment is the geographical area where the disease takes place and refers to the extrinsic factors that affect the agent and opportunity for exposure. The factors that are environmentally include social economic factors such as overcrowding populations, sanitation issues and availability of health care. Throughout the remains of this paper there will be examples of the epidemiology triangle as it focuses on Human Papillomavirus or HPV. Population and Disease of interest
The Human Papillomavirus refers to a virus that comes from the family of Papillomavirus. This family establishes infections in the keratinocytes of the skin or mucus membranes. There are more than 100 different strains of the virus. History shows that HPV infections are linked all the way back to ancient Greece and Rome. It was described as lesions in the genital area which matches up to HPV induced warts. The doctors of the ancient times wrote it as lesions with sexual activity, it was not until the 1970 when researchers identified it as warts caused from HPV. Assessment of the Population
The center for disease control and prevention say that approxmently 20 million Americans currently have HPV and another 6.2 million become infected every year. The CDC also says that 50 percent of Americans become infected at some point of their lives. HPV virus has more than 100 different strains, many of which are harmless and cause no signs or symptoms or illness and will clear up on their own however there are types of the virus that cause a huge amount of trouble and including genital warts , cervical cancer, vaginal cancer, and even anal cancer. HPV types 16 and 11 cause 90 percent of genital wart, about 20 percent of the vulva and rectal cancers and between 60 percent of the vaginal cancers. HPV type 16 and 18 are the result of 70 percent of the cervical cancers in the United States. Unlike Aids and HIV some types of HPV can be passed through skin to skin centrally or by touching someone who is infected with HPV virus. HPV that caused genital HPV signs and symptoms can only be passed through vaginal or anal intercourse. There is a chance that a mother could pass it to her child during childbirth. HPV is not sexist and both men and women can contract the disease and because sometimes there are no signs or symptoms it can be passed to other people unknowingly. HPV...
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