Howard Gardner

Topics: Theory of multiple intelligences, Intelligence quotient, Intelligence Pages: 8 (1817 words) Published: September 10, 2014


Howard Gardner and his Theory of Multiple Intelligences

Abstract
This paper provides brief biographical information on Howard Gardner while detailing his original intelligences, along with additionally found intelligences, and opinions from critics. Howard Gardner was influenced throughout his studies and career development by multiple prominent thinkers. Upon graduation Howard was employed by Jerome Burner who is a cognitive and educational psychologist (Palmer et al., 2001). Stated by Palmer et al. (2001) Gardner thought of “Piaget’s theory of human development inadequate” (p. 273). “Through the remainder of [Gardner’s] graduate education to present day, Project Zero has been at the center of [his] intellectual life” (Palmer et al., 2001, p. 274). Through Project Zero Gardner developed his theory of human cognition which later establishes his theory of multiple intelligences (MI) (Palmer et al., 2001). Customary calculations of intelligence highlight language and logical-mathematical capabilities (Sadker & Zittleman, 2012). These emphases could be measured by the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) (Sadker & Zittleman, 2012). “The theory of multiple intelligences more accurately captures the diverse nature of human capability” (Sadker & Zittleman, 2012, p.26). “The unevenness of the theory’s application has led simultaneously to the [MI] theory’s praise and damnation” (Palmer et al., 2001, p. 276). Gardner at first used the word “intelligence” as an insignificant vocabulary replacement (Helding, 2009). Later his research was better understood and accepted.

Howard Gardner and his Theory of Multiple Intelligences
The start of the twenty-first century has become the time for change in many aspects of the world. Particularly in education the way instructors teach, the technology used to facilitate learning and the broad methods being used gives a new perspective of a digitally based generation. According to Sadker and Zittleman (2012) rudimentary scholastic conceptions are being further looked over, redefined, and due to such variety in education expanded to include a more diverse group. In addition, children defined as students with extraordinariness have risen (Sadker & Zittleman, 2012). This ever increasing number no longer encompasses solely children with bodily impairments, development, and communicative disabilities, rather also ones with gifts and talents (Sadker & Zittleman, 2012). In the book Fifty Modern Thinkers on Education, authors Palmer, Bresler and Cooper (2001) stated “Howard Gardner; among the most well- known thinkers in education in the United States at the turn of the millennium, did not seem destined to take up this role” (p. 272) of becoming an influential persona in education. Howard Gardner “authored six books and over 100 scholarly articles in cognitive development and neuropsychology” (Palmer et al., 2001, p. 272). After vast research and work on previous studies his published work did not focus on education until his seventh book: Frames of Mind: Theory of Multiple Intelligences which had only two pages pertaining to the interworking’s of his claimed Multiple Intelligence Theory in relation to educational practices (Palmer et al., 2001). This seventh book, as stated by Palmer et al. (2001), “has placed Gardner at the [center] of educational theory and practice in the United States and established for him a prominent role worldwide” (p. 272). Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences (MI) is influential in education with the establishment of his original theories, along with the additionally found intelligences, and the receipt of comments by critics. By first looking into Gardner’s existence and efforts prior to this corner stone and along with his scholarly quests afterwards better explains his massive effect on education. In 1943 Howard Gardner was born in Pennsylvania to impoverished parents that escaped from Nazi Germany (Palmer et al., 2001). Right...

References: Helding, L. (2009). Howard gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences. Journal of Singing, 66(2), 193-199. Retrieved from
Palmer, J., Bresler, L., & Cooper, D. (2001). Fifty modern thinkers on education : from piaget to the present day. (pp. 272-276). London; New York: Routledge.
Sadker, D., & Zittleman, K. (2012). Teachers, schools and society. (10th ed., pp. 26-29). USA: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
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