HOWARDS GARDNER THEORY ON MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE
Howard Earl Gardner (born July 11, 1943 in Scranton, Pennsylvania) is an American developmental psychologist who is John H. and Elisabeth A. Hobbs Professor of Cognition and Education at Harvard Graduate School of Education at Harvard University. He is best known for his theory of multiple intelligences. Multiple intelligences is an idea that simply states that human beings have many different ways to learn and process information, or "intelligences." In response to the question of whether or not measures of intelligence are scientific, Gardner suggests that each individual manifests varying levels of different intelligences, and thus each person has refined in subsequent years.
According to Gardner, intelligence is “the capacity to solve problems or to fashion products that are valued in one or more cultural settings” (Gardner & Hatch, 1989) “all societies value different types of intelligences” (Gardner, 1983). Howard Gardner proposes that there is not a single intelligence, but rather that there are nine, maybe more. These include Linguistic intelligence, Logical/Mathematical intelligence, Visual/Spatial intelligence, Musical intelligence, Bodily-Kinesthetic intelligence, Interpersonal intelligence, Intrapersonal intelligence, Naturalist intelligence, Existential intelligence (Smith, 2002). He claims also claims that we possess all of these intelligences but in varying degrees of strength, skill and limitation. Just as we all look different and have unique personalities and temperaments, we also have different profiles of intelligences, no one kind of intelligence is better than another. We will now look at each intelligence in some detail.
Linguistic Intelligence often called verbal/linguistic intelligence is having mastery of language and also the ability to manipulate language to express oneself rhetorically or poetically. It also uses language as a means to remember information. The second,...
References: Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of Mind. New York: Basic Books Inc.
Gardner, H. (1993). Frames of mind : the theory of multiple intelligences. New York, NY : BasicBooks. xxxii, 440 p.
Gardner, H., & Hatch, T. (1989). Multiple intelligences go to school: Educational implications of the theory of multiple intelligences. Educational Researcher, 18(8), 4-9.
Gilman, L. (2001). The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. Retrieved April 13, 2004, from Indiana University Web site: http://www.indiana.edu/~intell/mitheory.shtml
Lazear, D.G. (1992). Teaching for multiple intelligences. Bloomington, IN : Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation. 46 p.
Smith, K. (2002). Howard Gardner and Multiple intelligences, the encyclopedia of informal education. Retrieved April 14, 2004, from http://www.infed.org/thinkers/gardner.htm
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