The simple circular diagram, which shows the four P's focusing upon the customer, emphasizes the variables which the marketing manager can control. But the actual situation is more, complex. Since marketing does not exist in a vacuum, certain external factors must be considered. These factors limit the marketing manager and he must work with or around them. They can be placed in the following categories:
1. Cultural and social environment,
2. Political and legal environment,
3. Economic environment,
4. Existing business structure,
5. Resources and objectives of the firm.
The interrelations of these particular variables can be seen more clearly if a new diagram is drawn. Figure 4 shows the four controllable variables the components of a marketing mix in the center of a larger circular diagram. On the outer ring are these live new variables, which the marketing manager cannot change or even control in the short run, but which he must always bear in mind when planning his marketing strategies. In the long run his actions may affect these factors and this will affect his future strategies; but current planning usually must take these factors as given. As seen from this viewpoint, marketing is truly an integrating discipline. The marketing manager must seek ways to relate and interrelate the findings and analytical approaches of many other disciplines. Much of the work being done in the areas of sociology, anthropology, psychology and social psychology is concerned with gaining a better understanding of the cultural and social environment.
The Marketing Manager's Variables
The traditional fields of political science, history, philosophy, law and economics envelop the political and legal environment. The fields of economics and business administration, as well as the natural sciences and engineering, are relevant to the economic environment. And business administration and economics are concerned with...
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