1.(a) The health hazards of tobacco use have caused interest in finding evidence to proof that it is a bigger health threat than all other drug substances combined. Smokers have much higher rates of heart disease, stroke and cancer than nonsmokers. This is why the tobacco industry fought back and tried to prove the contrary, it took many years for them to admit the adverse effects on health, but have not yet admitted the dependence of nicotine use. There are contradictory views on the nature of nicotine dependence. Nicotine is a reinforcing substance and produces physical and mood-altering effects in your brain that are temporarily pleasing. These effects make you want to use tobacco and lead to dependence. At the same time, stopping tobacco use causes withdrawal symptoms, including irritability and anxiety. Due to potent reinforcing properties of the substance it is very difficult to stop and when people stop they gain weight. The Surgeon General’s conclusions are that cigarettes and other forms of tobacco are addicting, nicotine is the drug in tobacco that causes addiction, and pharmacological and behavioral processes of tobacco addiction are similar to the ones as heroin and cocaine. On the contrary, industry executives testified that nicotine was not addicting, that it was a matter of choice and people can stop if they wanted to. There is much proof of the dependence of nicotine use, but they want to believe what’s convenient for their industry.
1. (b) A smoker should be held accountable to a high degree for his or her addiction to nicotine because they took the initiative or made the decision to begin smoking despite all the advertising of the health risks and consequences that the media and medical providers alert the public with. There are so many risks and exposures that nicotine can bring to a person’s health, physiology and behavior. On the other hand, when a person is already addicted and it’s difficult to stop; when the addiction...
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